Role of government/Impact:

1. “The moral test of government is how that government treats those who are in the dawn of life—the children; those who are in the twilight of life—the elderly; and those who are in the shadows of life—the sick, the needy, the handicapped.” Hubert H. Humphrey of Minnesota

Maybe use this LOC image:

spinner.jpg
spinner.jpg

spinner:http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/nclc.02873/

CITATION
Hines, Lewis W., photographer. "Fourteen year old spinner in a[?] Brazos Valley Cotton Mill at West. Violation of the law. Matty Lott runs six sides. See family group and their story. Location: West, Texas." 1913. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/ncl2004004049/PP/. (accessed December 1, 2011).

humphrey.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/92519980/

CITATION
"[Hubert H. Humphrey, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly right]." 1970. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/92519980/. (accessed December 1, 2011).


Hubert Humphrey was the Vice President under President Johnson and Democratic U.S. Senator. He represented Minnesota in the U.S. Congress in 1949 until 1964 and again from 1971 to 1978. While serving in the Senate, Humphrey held the position of Majority Whip from 1961 until 1964. He received the Democratic Party's nomination for president in 1968 but lost the election to Richard Nixon.



2. “The business of government is justice.” Rep. Millicent Fenwick of New Jersey

Possible image for this:
Drinking fountain
man_drinking.jpg
man_drinking.jpg

Man drinking from a segregated water cooler in an Oklahoma City street car terminal. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, July 1939.
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/civilrights/cr-exhibit.html
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/civilrights/images/cr0005s.jpg

CITATION
Lee, Russell, photographer. "Man drinking from a segregated water cooler in an Oklahoma City street car terminal. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma." 1939. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/civilrights/cr-exhibit.html. (accessed December 1, 2011).

Millicent_Fenwick.jpg
fenwick.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/98517157/

CITATION
"[Millicent Fenwick, half-length portrait, facing left]." 1976. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/98517157/. (accessed December 1, 2011).

Millicent Fenwick was a Congresswoman who represented New Jersey in the House of Representatives from 1975 until 1983. After her time in Congress, she became the first the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Agencies for Food and Agriculture. Regarded as a moderate and progressive Republican, Fenwick was an advocate for civil rights and the women's movement.


3. “Let us develop the resources of our land, call forth its powers, build up its institutions, promote all its great interests, and see whether we also, in our day and generation, may not perform something worthy to be remembered.” Sen. Daniel Webster of Massachusetts

Possible AOC image for this, Rotunda of Capitol:
3)
us-capitol-rotunda_w_statue.jpg
us-capitol-rotunda_w_statue.jpg


CITATION
Architect of the Capitol



Webster.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=241973312
LOC image

CITATION
"Daniel Webster." c1863. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003664885/. (accessed December 1, 2011).

Daniel Webster was an American statesman during the mid-1800s and a part of the Great Triumvirate with Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. He represented Massachusetts in the Senate from 1827 to 1841 and again from 1845 to 1850. Earlier, he served in the U.S. House of Representatives, representing New Hampshire from 1813 to 1817 and Massachusetts from 1823 to 1827. Though he sought the presidency three times and failed, he served under three presidents as Secretary of State.


4. "I believe that the essence of government lies with the unceasing concern for the welfare and dignity and decency and innate integrity of life for every individual. I don't like to say this and wish I didn't have to add these words to make it clear but I will--regardless of color, creed, ancestry, sex, or age." Lyndon B. Johnson

Possible image for this:
Caption: Group of Suffragettes at House Office Building, 1916

women_door.jpg
women_door.jpg

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/hec.06857/

CITATION
Harris & Ewing, photographer. "Woman suffrage. Group of suffragists at House Office Building." 1916. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/hec2008004800/. (accessed December 1, 2011).


LBJ2.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003673956/resource/

CITATION
O'Halloran, Thomas, photographer. "Sen. Lyndon B. Johnson, Senate majority leader / [TOH]." 1955. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003673956/. (accessed December 1, 2011).

Lyndon B. Johnson was the 36th President of the United States, becoming the president after the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963. Johnson was elected into the presidency in 1964 and served in the office until 1969. Johnson was one of only a few people to have served in all four elected federal offices of the United States: President, Vice President, Senator, and Representative. As president Johnson pushed forward "Great Society" legislation that promoted civil rights, environmental protection, education, and health care.

5. “If a government or a people is to progress, its goal must ever be a little beyond its reach.” Sen. Robert F. Wagner of New York

POSSIBLE IMAGE: The United States government encouraged immigration in the 1860's, to help settle the west. A major factor was the Homestead Act of 1862, which gave up to 160 acres of western land free to settlers who develop and live on it for five years. Slightly romanticized depiction here.

‍Emigrants Crossing the Plains, 1860shttp://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/93506240/


3g02634r.jpg
3g02634r.jpg


CITATION
Hall, Henry B., engraver. "Emigrants crossing the plains." c1869. Engraving. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/93506240/. (accessed December 8, 2011).

Wagner.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/hec.21594/

CITATION
Harris & Ewing, photographer. "Wagner, Robert, Senator." [between 1905 and 1945]. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/hec2009008292/. (accessed December 8, 2011).

Robert Wagner was a Democratic Congressman who served the state of New York in the Senate from 1927 until 1949. He was advocate for workers' rights, writing the National Labor Relations Act of 1935, also known as the Wagner Act. Wagner was also responsible for the Wagner-Steagall Housing Act of 1937, which provided government subsidies to improve living conditions for poor families.



6. "We can't help everyone, but everyone can help someone." Ronald Reagan

218707305_6835079f6d_z.jpg
http://www.flickr.com/photos/grundlepuck/218707305/

CITATION
Ford, T.D., photographer. http://www.flickr.com/photos/grundlepuck/218707305/. (accessed December 13, 2011).


REAGAN:
reagan.jpg

cq_rp_reagan.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=263214286

BIO SAME AS EARLIER


7 “It is a privilege to serve people, a privilege that must be earned, and once earned, there is an obligation to do something good with it.” Rep. Barbara C. Jordan of Texas

Possible image for this
Caption: The only two women serving in Congress at time of photograph, 1922
Greeting arrival of new colleague, November 20, 1922

‍Rep. Alice Robertson (OK) presenting her new colleague, Mrs. Winifred Mason Huck (IL), with flowers on her arrival at the House Office Building. The second and third women ever to serve in Congress, they were the only two serving at the time of the photograph.

‍Source: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3b00208


early_female_members.jpg
early_female_members.jpg

early_female_members.jpg

CITATION
"Miss Alice Robertson of Okla. presenting her new collegue [sic], Mrs. Winifred Mason Huck with flowers on the latter's arrival at the House Office Building." 1922. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002695662/. (accessed December 8, 2011).



Representative Barbara Jordan of Texas
external image jordan.gif



Barbara C. Jordan was the first Southern African-American elected to Congress. Representative Jordan was well-known for her televised speech before the House Judiciary Committee supporting the impeachment of President Nixon. She also gave the keynote address at the 1976 Democratic National Convention, becoming the first African-American woman to do so.


8. “Thrice happy is the nation that has a glorious history. Far better it is to dare mighty things, to win glorious triumphs, even though checkered by failure, than to take rank with those poor spirits who neither enjoy much nor suffer much, because they live in the gray twilight that knows neither victory nor defeat.” Theodore Roosevelt

Might use this AOC image:
z4-0171_plane_over_reversed_image_of_USC_RSOB.jpg
z4-0171_plane_over_reversed_image_of_USC_RSOB.jpg


CITATION
Architect of the Capitol


TheodoreRooseveltGRindentif[1].jpg
http://www.public.navy.mil/airfor/cvn71/Pages/BIOGRAPHY.aspx

CITATION
"Theodore Roosevelt." n.d.. Photograph. US Navy: USS Theodore Roosevelt.
http://www.public.navy.mil/airfor/cvn71/Pages/BIOGRAPHY.aspx. (accessed December 8, 2011).

Theodore Roosevelt was the 26th President of the United States. At age 42, he became the youngest man to become president, taking the office after the assassination of President McKinley in 1901. He served as president until 1909. As an outdoorsman and naturalist, Roosevelt was one of the first to make conservation an issue. During his presidency he established five national parks, 18 national monuments, and 150 national forests.


9. “What the American people want is very simple—they want an America as good as its promise.” Rep. Barbara C. Jordan of Texas


Possible image for this:
#4- bus station, "Colored Waiting Room"
bus_station.jpg
bus_station.jpg

http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsc.00199/

CITATION
Delano, Jack, photographer. "At the bus station in Durham, North Carolina." 1940. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/fsa1998006256/PP/. (accessed December 8, 2011).


Representative Barbara Jordan of Texas
external image jordan.gif
BIO SAME AS EARLIER

10. “You measure a government by how few people need help.” Rep. Patricia Schroeder of Colorado

Possible image:
Caption: Midnight at glass works in Indiana, 1908

glass_works.jpg
glass: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/nclc.01151/?co=nclc

CITATION
Hine, Lewis W., photographer. "Glass works. Midnight. Location: Indiana." 1908. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: National Child Labor Committee Collection, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/ncl2004000103/PP/. (accessed December 8, 2011).

schroeder-patricia.jpg
http://womenincongress.house.gov/member-profiles/profile.html?intID=220

CITATION
"Patricia S. Schroeder." n.d.. Photograph. Women in Congress: Office of the Clerk, Washington, DC. http://womenincongress.house.gov/member-profiles/profile.html?intID=220. (accessed December 8, 2011).

Patricia Schroeder was a Democratic Congresswoman from Colorado who served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1973 until 1997. She was the first woman to be elected to Congress from Colorado. An advocate for women's rights, Schroeder worked towards equity in the workplace and helped pass legislation that prevented discrimination. She was also the first woman to serve on the House Armed Service Committee.


11. "One of the things I have looked at all through my life is that some things aren't fair. Some people are treated differently... Of course, after I became a lawyer, I could see that unfairness was written into the laws." Rep. Martha W. Griffiths of Michigan

Possible image for this:
#6- bus station "White Waiting Room"
white_waiting_room.jpg
white_waiting_room.jpg

http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsc.00201/

CITATION
Bubley, Esther, photographer. "A Greyhound bus trip from Louisville, Kentucky, to Memphis, Tennessee, and the terminals. Waiting for the bus at the Memphis terminal." 1943. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/owi2001035877/PP/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

LOC CLOSE-UP OF GRIFFITHS:
Griffiths.jpg

cq_rog_griffiths.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/93506765/

CITATION
Harris & Ewing, photographer. "[Martha W. Griffiths, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing right]." 1956. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: Congressional Portrait Collection. Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/93506765/. (accessed December 9, 2011).

Martha Griffiths was a U.S. Representative from 1955 until 1974 and the first Democratic woman to represent Michigan in Congress. She was also the first woman to serve on the House Committee on Ways and Means. Griffiths was the sponsor of the Equal Rights Amendment, which passed Congress but was not ratified by the states.



12. "The legitimate object of government is to do for a community of people whatever they need to have done but cannot do at all, or cannot so well do for themselves in their separate and individual capacities. But in all that people can individually do for themselves, government ought not to interfere." Abraham Lincoln


MADISON'S NOTES FOR BILL OF RIGHTS REMARKS TO HOUSE FLOOR.
(James Madison, Notes for a speech introducing the Bill of Rights, [June 8, 1789].)
madison_notes_for_speech.jpg
madison_notes_for_speech.jpg

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/madison/objects.html
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/madison/images/vc11.jpg

CITATION
Madison, James, author. "Notes for a speech introducing the Bill of Rights." 1789. Document. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: Madison's Treasures Collection. Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/madison/objects.html. (accessed December 1, 2011).


Lincoln.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2008680969/resource/

CITATION
Berger, Anthony, photographer. "[Abraham Lincoln, three-quarter length portrait, seated, facing right; hair parted on Lincoln's right side]." 1864. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2008680969/. (accessed December 1, 2011).

Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from 1861 until his assassination in 1865. He led the country during the Civil War and preserved the union. In 1863 he issued the Emancipation Proclamation, an executive order that freed the slaves in the Confederate slaves. Prior to the presidency, Lincoln served for two years as an Illinois Representative in the U.S. Congress.


13. "I don't measure America by its achievement but by its potential." Rep. Shirley Chisholm of New York

Maybe use this image:
Caption: Map based upon 1860 Census data showing the percentage of slaves in various counties, sometimes exceeding 80%(?), 1861
‍Census map showing slave populations

map_image.pl.jpg
map_image.pl.jpg

LOC Version: http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?ammem/gmd:@field%28NUMBER+@band%28g3861e+cw0013200%29%29

CITATION
Hergesheimer, Edwin, cartographer. "Map showing the distribution of the slave population of the southern states of the United States. Compiled from the census of 1860." 1861. Map. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: American Memory Collection. Washington, DC. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g3861e.cw0013200. (accessed December 1, 2011).


Chisholm.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003688123/resource/

CITATION
O'Halloran, Thomas, photographer. "Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm announcing her candidacy for presidential nomination." 1972. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003688123/. (accessed December 8, 2011).

Shirley Chisholm was U.S. Congresswoman, representing the state of New York in the House of Representatives from 1969 to 1983. She was the first African-American woman to serve in Congress. Chisholm sought the Democratic nomination for president in 1972, but ultimately lost her party's nomination to George McGovern. Chisholm worked towards improving opportunities for inner-city residents. She favored reductions in military spending, and supported spending increases in education, health care, and other social services.



14. "The consideration which ought to determine almost every decision of policy today is the necessity of preserving, maintaining, and increasing the liberty of the people of our country, as a fundamental to every other progressive purpose." Sen. Robert A. Taft of Ohio

Possible image for this:
Caption: Sec of State Thomas Jefferson's tabulation of votes on Bill of Rights, 1789-91
TEXT: Thomas Jefferson, as secretary of state, maintained this tally of state ratifications of the proposed twelve amendments to the Constitution. Only ten amendments received the required ratifications to become part of the Constitution.

Thomas Jefferson. “Tabulation of State Votes on Amendments to the Constitution,” 1789–1791. Manuscript document. Thomas Jefferson Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
(85.02.00)
[Digital ID# us0085_01]
jefferson_tally_2.jpg
jefferson_tally_2.jpg

http://myloc.gov/Exhibitions/creatingtheus/BillofRights/DemandforaBillofRights/ExhibitObjects/JeffersonTalliesRatifications.aspx

CITATION
Jefferson, Thomas. “Tabulation of State Votes on Amendments to the Constitution.” 1789–1791. Manuscript document. From the Library of Congress: Thomas Jefferson Papers, Manuscript Division, Washington, DC. http://myloc.gov/Exhibitions/creatingtheus/BillofRights/DemandforaBillofRights/ExhibitObjects/JeffersonTalliesRatifications.aspx. (accessed December 1, 2011).


LOC CLOSEUP OF TAFT:
taft.jpg

cq_rog_taft.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005687198/

CITATION
"[Robert A. Taft]." c1940. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005687198/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

Robert Taft was a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Ohio. He served in Congress from 1939 to 1953 and held the position of Senate Majority Leader in 1953. As an opponent to New Deal policies, Taft led the conservative coalition against the power of labor unions and was a major proponent of non-intervention in regards to foreign policy.


15. "There are no Democratic or Republican highways; no such thing as Republican or Democratic traffic congestion; no such thing as Republican or Democratic aviation and highway safety..." Rep. Norman Mineta of California

ELAINE: POSSIBLE IMAGE TO PULL OVER, SERVICE STATION:
service_station.jpg

cq_rog_service_station.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=262500558

CITATION
"[Searl's garage and service station, Inlet, New York]." c1910. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/92515942/?utma=37760702.1453536798.1314889759.1314975707.1315227790.6&utmb=37760702.11.10.1315227790&utmc=37760702&utmx=-&utmz=37760702.1314889759.1.1.utmcsr=(direct). (accessed December 1, 2011).

ELAINE: IMAGE OF MINETA:
MINETA.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Norman_Mineta,_official_portrait,_DOT.jpg

CITATION
"Norman Mineta, Secretary of Transportation." n.d.. Photograph. Wikipedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Norman_Mineta,_official_portrait,_DOT.jpg. (accessed December 1, 2011).

Norman Mineta is Japanese-American former Representative from California whose his family was forced to live in an internment camp in Wyoming during WWII. Mineta was elected as a Democrat to the Ninety-fourth Congress and to the ten succeeding Congresses (January 3, 1975-October 10, 1995) until his resignation in 1995. He served as Secretary of Commerce in the Cabinet of President William J. Clinton, 2000-2001, and Secretary of Transportation in the Cabinet of President George W. Bush, 2001-2006.


EXTRA IMAGE:
Immigrants on an Atlantic liner, 1906
immigrants_on_ship.jpg
immigrants_on_ship.jpg

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/97501073/


EXTRA IMAGE:
teddy.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2009631438/resource/
1838-004-B4C89D8D.jpg
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/12173/Barbara-C-Jordan

EXTRA IMAGES:

reagan3.jpg
reagan2.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/91730645/

EXTRA IMAGE:
ELAINE: Here's another bread line in LOC collection, hopefully free:
LINE.jpg
LINE.jpg

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/fsa1998018760/PP/
EXTRA IMAGE:

spinners.jpg
spinners.jpg

inside mill: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/nclc.01441/?co=nclc
EXTRA IMAGE:
LBJ.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/96522661/resource/
EXTRA IMAGE:
Webster.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2006678319/resource/

...Here's a question about the role of government...
1. 2006 Grade 8/Hard block 4 #5 (38.88%, A)
Questions 4-7__refer to the passage below from the Declaration of Independence. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

5.Which statement best summarizes the main point being made in the passage?
  1. The people should be in control of their own government.
  2. The church should help governments determine what is right.
  3. The main function of government is to keep people happy.
  4. Governments need to be changed regularly to keep them from becoming unjust.

2. 2006 Grade 8/Medium block 4, #10 (54.07%, A)
10. In the United States, taxes are NOT used for
  1. building churches
  2. funding public libraries
  3. building roads
  4. taking care of parks

3. 2006 Grade 8/Hard block 4, #14 (21.87%, C)
Question 14 refers to the cartoon below.
Cartoon of two men at a restaurant. Man A has a newspaper open and Man B is sipping coffee. Frame 1: Man A says, 'Our exports are declining...our jobs are threatened...'. Frame 2: Man A says, 'and our National Security is at risk...'. Frame 3: Man A says, '...because the poor countries are buried in unpayable debts'. Frame 4: Man B says, 'Hey - that's their problem'.
Cartoon of two men at a restaurant. Man A has a newspaper open and Man B is sipping coffee. Frame 1: Man A says, 'Our exports are declining...our jobs are threatened...'. Frame 2: Man A says, 'and our National Security is at risk...'. Frame 3: Man A says, '...because the poor countries are buried in unpayable debts'. Frame 4: Man B says, 'Hey - that's their problem'.
Copyright ® 1987 Tribune Media Services, Inc. All rights reserved. Reprinted by permission.

14. What is the main point of the cartoon?
  1. The United States government should lend more money to poorer countries.
  2. The United States military should protect poorer countries.
  3. Domestic and foreign policy are related.
  4. Citizens are well informed about political issues.

4. 2010 Grade 8/Medium Block 9, #15 (51.56%)
  1. Give two specific examples of how the women’s rights movement has affected women’s lives or changed society.
1)

2)

ANSWER/RESPONSE



5. 2006 Grade 12/Medium/Hard block 7, #12 (.......)
Questions 11-12refer to the statement below. Americans volunteer to work with a wide variety of nongovernmental organizations. Volunteers provide social services, work to clean the environment, and help to educate the young. But while many people view volunteerism as a "good" thing, they do not understand just how important volunteers are to the health of American democracy. Volunteerism both makes people better citizens, and helps restrain the growth of government in a way that protects the freedom of all.

12.Give one reason that explains how volunteer work can make people better citizens. (27.36%)

Give one reason that explains how volunteer work can restrain the growth of government.
ANSWER/RESPONSE

ELAINE-NEED TO TRACK THIS ANSWER DOWN. GOT LOST IN THE CUTTING AND PASTING (probably find in earlier version of questions for last section, on citizen involvment.


6. 2010 Grade 12/Medium block 3, #5: (51.52%)
Question 5 refers to the following two quotations.
"Government has a final responsibility for the well-being of its citizenry. If private cooperative endeavor fails to provide work for willing hands and relief for the unfortunate, those suffering hardship . . . have a right to call upon the Government for aid, and a government worthy of its name must make fitting response."
—Franklin Roosevelt, 1938
"Democracy is less a system of government than it is a system to keep government limited, unintrusive: A system of constraints on power to keep politics and government secondary to the important things in life. . . ."
—Ronald Reagan, 1988
5. In your own words, summarize the respective viewpoints of Roosevelt and Reagan on the proper role of government in a democracy.
Roosevelt’s viewpoint on the role of government:
Reagan’s viewpoint on the role of government:

ANSWER/RESPONSE


7. 2010 Grade 12/Medium Block 4, #3 (48.29%, B)
Questions 2 - 6 are about the Supreme Court case of Schenck v. The United States (1919). In this case, Schenck was prosecuted for having violated the Espionage Act of 1917 by publishing and distributing leaflets that opposed the military draft and United States entry into the First World War. The court ruled in favor of the United States. Below is an excerpt from the majority opinion. We admit that in . . . ordinary times the defendants . . . would have been within their constitutional rights. But the character of every act depends upon the circumstances in which it is done. The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. . . . The question in every case is whether the words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the evils that Congress has a right to prevent.

3. The decision reflects the tension between
  1. providing economic equality and protecting political equality
  2. defending civil liberties and protecting national security
  3. defending the right of free speech and protecting people from slander
  4. protecting the power of the Congress and enhancing the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review

8. 2010 Grade 12/Medium block 3, #2 (43.71%, B)

2. What is one responsibility that modern Presidents have that is NOT described in the Constitution?
  1. Commanding the armed forces
  2. Proposing an annual budget to Congress
  3. Appointing Supreme Court justices
  4. Granting pardons

9. 2010 Grade 8/Easy block 8 #10 (62.44%, B)
10. What idea is part of American democracy?
  1. Every citizen has the right to have a job.
  2. The law applies to everyone equally.
  3. All children must get a high school education.
  4. People who do not vote lose their right to protest against unfair laws.



10. 2010 Grade 8/Medium Block 8 #2 (41.17%)
2. Explain one way in which our country and the people in it might benefit from higher taxes.
Explain one way in which our country and the people in it might benefit from lower taxes.

ANSWER/RESPONSE



11. 2010 Grade 12/Medium Block 6, #16 (59.19%, B)
Questions 16 - 17 are about the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, an excerpt of which is printed below. All persons born or naturalized in the United States . . . are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

16. Under what historical circumstances was the Fourteenth Amendment passed?
  1. It was passed soon after the American Revolution to limit the power of the federal government.
  2. It was passed soon after the Civil War to protect the rights of former slaves.
  3. It was passed soon after the First World War to protect the rights of immigrants.
  4. It was passed during the Vietnam War to protect the freedom of antiwar protesters.

12. 2010 Grade 8/Medium Block 9, #16 (52.47%, A)
Question 16 refers to the cartoon below.
HE003230.g03
HE003230.g03

16. The main message of the cartoon is that
  1. there should be less federal regulation of small businesses
  2. small businesses should merge into corporations to have more power
  3. small businesses rely too much on government money
  4. poor urban planning makes small businesses fail



13. 2006 Grade 8/Easy Block 4 #4 (85.32%, D)
Questions 4-7 refer to the passage below from the Declaration of Independence. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
4. According to the passage, the most important purpose of government is to protect
  1. people from harm
  2. the church
  3. the truth
  4. people's rights

14. 2010 Grade 12/Medium Block 3, #4 (40.86%, B)
QK070002.g03
QK070002.g03

4.The cartoon above suggests that the United States government would be improved if it
  1. were less concerned with domestic policy
  2. were smaller and less bureaucratic
  3. did not have to divide power among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches
  4. did not have to divide power among federal, state, and local levels



15. 2010 Grade 12/Hard Block 3, #1 (38.38%, D)

"A witness' refusal to answer whether or not he is a Communist on the ground that his answer would tend to incriminate him is the most positive proof obtainable that the witness is a Communist."
—Senator Joseph McCarthy, 1953
3. In the speech above, Joseph McCarthy seems to ignore constitutional rights granted by the
  1. First Amendment
  2. Second Amendment
  3. Fourth Amendment
  4. Fifth Amendment