Representative democracy:


1. "Let us never forget that government is ourselves and not an alien power over us. The ultimate rulers of a democracy are not a President and senators and congressmen and government officials, but the voters of this country." Franklin D. Roosevelt



BLACKS IN LINE:
voting1.jpg

cq_rp_voting_line.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/99400836/

CITATION
"[NAACP photograph showing people waiting in line for voter registration, at Antioch Baptist Church.]" Photograph. 1948. From Library of Congress: Visual Materials from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Records. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/99400836/. (accessed December 12, 2011).

FDR2.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/96523441/
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.

CITATION:
Goldensky, Elias, photographer. "[Franklin Delano Roosevelt, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly left.]" Photograph. c1933 Dec 27. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/96523441/. (accessed December 12, 2011).

Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States, serving in office from 1933 until his death in 1945. During his first 100
days in office Roosevelt created and instituted his New Deal policies, which helped bring the country out of the Great Depression through the
creation of government jobs and regulation of Wall Street, banks, and transportation. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Roosevelt delivered his famous "Day of Infamy" speech, and he helped lead the nation through World War II. He was the only president elected four times.


2. “Government is a trust, and the officers of the government are trustees; and both the trust and the trustees are created for the benefit of the people.” Sen. Henry Clay of Kentucky
(1777 – 1852)

Possible image for this:
1874 Senate on the Capitol steps

On the main steps of Capitol building that lead into the Rotunda, east front, 1874.

‍Source: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Senators_-_43rd_US_Congress.jpg

Senators_-_43rd_US_Congress.jpg
Senators_-_43rd_US_Congress.jpg

Senators_-_43rd_US_Congress.jpg
CITATION
Redington & Shaffer, photographers. "U.S. Senators, 43rd Congress." 1874. Washington, DC. Redington & Shaffer. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2008680542/. (accessed December 1, 2011).

CLAY:
CLAY1.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=196424814

CITATION
"Henry Clay." Photograph. c1843. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003679821/. (accessed December 1, 2011).

Henry Clay was a Senator and Representative from Kentucky who served in the United States government during the early to mid 1800s.
Known as the "The Great Compromiser," Clay was responsible for crafting major legislative compromises that averted a civil war.
He was named Speaker of the House in 1811, and later served as Secretary of State under John Quincy Adams. .

3. “That government is the strongest of which every man feels himself a part.” Thomas Jefferson
Possible image for this:
Seregated movie house in ...., 19--
movie_house.jpg
movie_house.jpg

http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.12888/

CITATION
Walcott, Marion P., photographer. "Negro going in colored entrance of movie house on Saturday afternoon, Belzoni, Mississippi Delta, Mississippi." 1939. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC.
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/fsa1998013484/PP/. (accessed December 1, 2011).


31_00006.jpg
http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/art/common/image/Painting_31_00006.htm

CITATION
Sully, Thomas, photographer. "Thomas Jefferson." 1856. Photograph. From U.S. Senate: Art & History, Washington, DC. http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/art/artifact/Painting_31_00006.htm. (accessed December 1, 2011).

Thomas Jefferson was the third president of the United States and the principal author of the Declaration of Independence. Before serving as
president from 1801-1809, Jefferson was the first Secretary of State, the second Vice President, and a delegate in the Congress of Confederation. He also held positions as an ambassador to France, governor of Virginia, and a delegate to the Second Continental Congress.

4. “Democracy is not a system at all but a set of values. Our ideas of self-government, majority rule, popular sovereignty,
all derive from the concept that government is an instrument for service.” Sen. James Harlan of Iowa

POSSIBLE IMAGE FOR THIS:
Caption: Photograph of U.S. Capitol, 1906
(TITLE: Capitol Building at Washington, D.C., c. 1906)
cap_1906.jpg
cap_1906.jpg

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/pan.6a03055/

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/thc1995002322/PP/

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/thc.5a45459/

CITATION
Horydczak, Theodor, photographer. "U.S. Capitol. Night reflection of U.S. Capitol in plaza pool II." 1946. Photograph. Horydczak Collection. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/thc1995002322/PP/. (accessed December 1, 2011).

HARLAN.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.26828/

CITATION
Vannerson, Julian, photographer. "[James Harlan, Senator from Iowa, Thirty-fifth Congress, half-length portrait]". 1859. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2010649428/. (accessed December 1, 2011).


James Harlan was a U.S. Senator from Iowa, serving in Congress from 1855-1865 and 1867-1873. He was appointed Secretary of the Interior in 1865 by President Andrew Johnson. Harlan held the Cabinet position until 1866 when he resigned due to his divergence from President Johnson's policies.


5. "Public service must be more than doing a job efficiently and honestly. It must be a complete dedication to the people and to the nation."
Sen. Margaret Chase Smith of Maine

Possible image for this
U.S. Capitol hung with crepe and flag at half-mast after death of President Lincoln, 1865
(Might possibly need to reverse image, may be backwards)
TITLE: Washington, D.C. Spectators at side of the Capitol, which is hung with crepe and has flag at half-mast
cap_after_lincoln.jpg
cap_after_lincoln.jpg

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cwpb.04192/?co=cwp
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2009633717/

CITATION
Brady, Matthew, photographer. "[Washington, D.C. Spectators at side of the Capitol, which is hung with crepe and has flag at half-mast during the "grand review" of the Union Army]". [photographed 1865, printed 1905]. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2009633717/. (accessed December 1, 2011).

Senator Margaret Chase Smith of Maine
Margaret Chase Smith by Ronald Frontin

CITATION:
Frontin, Margaret, photographer. "Margaret Chase Smith". 2002. Photograph. U.S. Senate: Art & History, Washington, DC. http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/art/artifact/Painting_32_00041.htm. (accessed December 1, 2011).
Margaret Chase Smith by Ronald Frontin
Margaret Chase Smith by Ronald Frontin

Margaret Chase Smith was the first woman to be elected to both the U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate, serving from 1940-1973. She was also the first woman to have her name placed in nomination for the presidency. Senator Smith became well-known for her 1950 "Declaration of Conscience" speech, in which she became one of the first senators to publicly condemn the actions of her fellow Republican senator, Joe McCarthy.

6. “The effect of [a representative democracy is] to refine and enlarge the public views, by passing them through the medium of a chosen body of citizens, whose wisdom may best discern the true interest of the nation....” James Madison
Possible image for this:
18. Capitol with Visitor Center"East front of the Capitol at sunset"
cap_with_visitor_center.jpg
cap_with_visitor_center.jpg

http://www.aoc.gov/cc/photo-gallery/
http://www.aoc.gov/cc/photo-gallery/images/EastFront_night.jpg

CITATION
"East Front of the Capitol at sunset." n.d. Photograph. Architect of the Capitol, Washington, DC. http://www.aoc.gov/cc/photo-gallery/capitol_views.cfm. (accessed December 1, 2011).

jamesMadison4c-large.jpg
http://www.jmu.edu/bethechange/stories/MadisonByNumbers.shtml

CITATION
"President James Madison." n.d. Photograph. James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA. http://www.jmu.edu/bethechange/stories/MadisonByNumbers.shtml. (accessed December 1, 2011).

James Madison was the 4th President of the United States, serving from 1809-1817. Prior to the presidency he served as a Representative
from Virginia in the U.S. Congress and held the office of Secretary of State under President Jefferson. Madison is known as the "Father of the
Constitution" and was also the author the Bill of Rights.



7. "Democracy is a life, and involves continual struggle. It is only as those of every generation who love democracy resist with all their might encroachments of its enemies that the ideals of representative government can ever be nearly approximated." Sen. Robert M. La Follette, Sr. of Wisconsin

UPPER PART OF ROTUNDA, WINDOWS (shows struggle on wall):
ROTUNDA.jpg
http://www.american-architecture.info/USA/USA-Washington/004-capitol_rotunda_painting_big.jpg

CITATION
(Capitol Rotunda Frieze). n.d. Photograph. American Architecture. http://www.american-architecture.info/USA/USA-Washington/DC-004.htm. (accessed December 1, 2011).

LAFOLLETTE:
LAFOLLETTE.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=262093775

CITATION
"Robert Marion LaFollette, 1855-1925". c1904. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003666602/. (accessed December 1, 2011.

Robert M. La Follette, Sr. was a U.S. Representative and Senator from Wisconsin at the turn of the 20th century. As a progressive Republican, "Fighting Bob" La Follette fought for reforms in child labor laws, social security, and women's suffrage, in addition to opposing U.S. involvement in World War I. La Follette also served as governor of Wisconsin from 1901-1906.


8. "Democracy is worth dying for, because it's the most deeply honorable form of government ever devised by man." Ronald Reagan

Possible image for this:
TITLE: Aerial view, United States Capitol building, Washington, D.C. (2007)
aerial_view.jpg
aerial_view.jpg

LOC Version: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2010630477/
http://www.totallyfreeimages.com/377687/Aerial-view,-United-States-Capitol-building,-Washington,-D.C

CITATION
Highsmith, Carol, photographer. n.d. "Aerial view, United States Capitol building, Washington, D.C." 2007. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2010630477/. (accessed December 1, 2011).


ELAINE- PULL OVER LOC IMAGE OF REAGAN:
reagan.jpg

cq_rp_reagan.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=31355901

CITATION
"[Ronald Reagan, half-length portrait, standing, facing left, making speech]." [between 1981 and 1989]. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/90710706/?utma=37760702.1453536798.1314889759.1314907575.1314968390.4&utmb=37760702.8.10.1314968390&utmc=37760702&utmx=-&utmz=37760702.1314889759.1.1.utmcsr=(direct). (accessed December 1, 2011).


Ronald Reagan was the 40th President of the United States, serving from 1981-1989. He advocated reducing taxes to spur economic growth,
deregulating the economy, and cutting government spending. He took a hard line against the Soviet Union, and helped bring about the end
of the Cold War. Prior to becoming president, he was govenor of California.


9. “I know of no safe depository of the ultimate powers of the society but the people themselves; and if we think them not enlightened enough to exercise their control with a wholesome discretion, the remedy is not to take it from them, but inform their discretion.” Thomas Jefferson

Possible AOC image for this:
2840704-lg_rotunda_poor_ltg.gif
2840704-lg_rotunda_poor_ltg.gif


CITATION:
AOC



31_00006.jpg
http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/art/common/image/Painting_31_00006.htm

SAME BIO AS EARLIER

10. “Out of the great masses of each nation has come all national progress. It is not the leaders and foremost men who make a nation; it is the nation which makes the leaders.” Rep. Thomas B. Reed of Maine


LaFollette addressing crowd
lafollette_addressing_crowd.jpg

(.tif version also available)

cq_rp_lafollette_addressing_crowd.jpg
ttp://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005683938/

CITATION
"[Robert Marion LaFollette, 1855-1925, full-length portrait, standing, right profile, making speech in 1924 Presidential campaign, with fist raised]". [1924?]. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005683938/. (accessed December 1, 2011).


REED:
REED.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=196484334

CITATION
"[Thomas Brackett Reed, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly left]". c1894. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2001696916/. (accessed December 1, 2011).

Thomas B. Reed was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Maine, serving in Congress from 1877-1899. He was first elected
as Speaker of the House in 1889, winning the position over William McKinley. Reed is responsible for increasing the power and influence of the Speaker and used great influence of his position to change parliamentary rules and eliminated the disappearing quorum.

11. "Either we are all free, or we fail; democracy must belong to all of us." Sen. Dennis Chavez of New Mexico

Possible LOC Image:
Mexican-American girls, schoolchildren 1901

school_girls.jpg

cq_rp_mex-am_girls.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=209097808

CITATION
"[Mexican-Americans in Southwestern U.S., 1901?: girls in front of schoolhouse]". 1901?. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2007682318/?utma=37760702.1453536798.1314889759.1314975707.1315227790.6&utmb=37760702.3.10.1315227790&utmc=37760702&utmx=-&utmz=37760702.1314889759.1.1.utmcsr=(direct). (accessed December 1, 2011).


CHAVEZ

Dennis Chavez, 1888-1962

CHAVEZ.jpg

cq_rp_chavez.jpg

utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=6771824

CITATION
"Dennis Chavez, 1888-1962". n.d.. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003666609/?utma=37760702.1453536798.1314889759.1314975707.1315227790.6&utmb=37760702.2.10.1315227790&utmc=37760702&utmx=-&__utmz=37760702.1314889759.1.1.utmcsr=(direct). (accessed December 1, 2011).

Dionisio "Dennis" Chavez (1888 –1962) was a Democratic member of Congress from New Mexico, serving first in the House of Representatives from 1931-1935, where he was chairman of the House Committee on Indian Affairs, and then in the Senate from 1935-62. He was particularly active on issues relating to farming, Native Americans, education, water resources, and international affairs.



EXTRA IMAGE:
TEXT: President Truman and family answering questions of 1950 Census taker, while at presidential retreat in Key West, Florida.

‍(Source...)

first_family.jpg
first_family.jpg

http://www.census.gov/history/www/sights_sounds/photos/1950_photos.php#

CITATION
"Enumerating the First Family". c1950. Photograph. U.S. Census Bureau: History. Washington, DC. http://www.census.gov/history/www/sights_sounds/photos/1950_photos.php. (accessed December 1, 2011).

EXTRA IMAGE:

POSSIBLE IMAGE FOR THIS:
Caption: Supreme Court Justices at the White House, 1929, at the beginning of the Great Depression, which would last for 10 years

justices_at_white_house.jpg
justices_at_white_house.jpg

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2004668207/

EXTRA IMAGE:
clay2.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=233804636


EXTRA IMAGE:
jeffport.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/jefferson/jefffed.html


EXTRA IMAGE:

expand-newdeal01.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0804/detail/newdeal01.html
EXTRA IMAGE:

HarlanJames.jpg
http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/image/HarlanJames.htm

EXTRA IMAGE:
HenryClay5.jpg
http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/Henry_Clay_Dies.htm

EATRA IMAGE:
18740039_117958219927.jpg
http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=pv&GRid=593&PIpi=6139300

EXTRA IMAGE:

ThomasBReed.jpg
http://www.leg.wa.gov/LAWSANDAGENCYRULES/REEDSRULES/Pages/default.aspx
EXTRA IMAGE:

reagan_portrait-m.jpg
http://www.archives.gov/reagan-centennial-commission/

EXTRA IMAGES:
NAACP VOTER REGISTRATION SIGN:
voting2.jpg

cq_rp_ncaap_voter_reg.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/00651251/

NEGRO REGISTRATION LINE:
voting3.jpg

cq_rp_negro_line.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/91483094/

BLACKS IN LINE:
voting4.jpg

cq_rp_blacks_in_line.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005685858/

... Here's a question about representative democracy...

1. 2010 Grade 8/Medium Block 8, #18(56.14%, C) [QUOTE ID: 1]
18. Near the end of an election campaign, a poll shows that an issue that no candidate has mentioned is of great concern to voters. What is most likely to happen?
  1. The election will be postponed.
  2. Newspapers will not report the results of the poll.
  3. Candidates will start talking about the issue.
  4. Some candidates will drop out of the race.

2. 2010 Grade 8/Easy Block 7 #19 -(63.42%, C) [QUOTE ID: 8]

19. Which of the following is a true statement about the United States Constitution?
  1. It created a democratic socialist state.
  2. It established a parliamentary government like that in Great Britain.
  3. It proclaimed that the government was based upon the consent of the people.
  4. It allowed a totalitarian government to function.


3. 2010 Grade 12/Medium Block 3, #18(43.16%, D) [QUOTE ID: 9]
Questions 18 - 19 refer to the newspaper article below. WASHINGTON, March 20 —The Supreme Court today upheld the validity of the 1990 census, ruling unanimously that the federal government had no constitutional obligation to adjust the results to correct an acknowledged undercount in big cities and among minorities . . . . At the core of the legal challenge to the 1990 census was the racially disparate undercount, the existence of which no one disputed. The census missed about 2 percent of the population as a whole, some four million people. But it missed 4.8 percent of the Black population and 5.2 percent of the Hispanic population.
From The New York Times, 3/21/1996 Issue ℗ 1996 The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited.

18. The situation described is important because census data are used to
  1. decide how many people should be drafted into the military
  2. decide how much federal income tax citizens in different states must pay
  3. determine how many seats states get in the Senate
  4. determine how many seats states get in the House of Representatives


4. 2006 Grade 8/Hard block 4, #8(20.1%, A) [QUOTE ID: 10]
Questions 8-9refer to the diagrams below.
Government X: Voters point to President and legislature, judicial branch points to President and legislature, President points to judicial branch, and legislature points to judicial branch. Government Y: Voters point to legislature, legislature points to Prime Minister and judicial branch, Prime Minister points to judicial branch, and judicial branch points to legislature and Prime Minister. Judical Branch in Government Y cannot overrule Prime Minister or legislature.
Government X: Voters point to President and legislature, judicial branch points to President and legislature, President points to judicial branch, and legislature points to judicial branch. Government Y: Voters point to legislature, legislature points to Prime Minister and judicial branch, Prime Minister points to judicial branch, and judicial branch points to legislature and Prime Minister. Judical Branch in Government Y cannot overrule Prime Minister or legislature.

8.Government X is different from Government Y in that in Government X the
  1. executive and legislative branches are separate
  2. executive, legislative, and judicial branches are all elected
  3. executive branch has little real power
  4. authority of the judicial branch is greater than that of the legislature


5. 2006 Grade 8/Hard block 6, #7(28.73%) [QUOTE ID: 11] DOES NOT FORMAT!

7.In the Gettysburg Address, President Abraham Lincoln described the United States government as "government of the people, by the people, for the people." Think about the three different parts of Lincoln's description, and EXPLAIN in your own words what he meant by "of the people, by the people, for the people."
ANSWER/RESPONSE GUIDE:



6. 2010 Grade 8/Medium Block 9, #11(53.67%, B) [QUOTE ID: 12]
11. The Federalist Papers were written to convince Americans to
  1. rise up against the tyranny of King George III
  2. ratify the United States Constitution
  3. abolish slavery
  4. elect George Washington to the presidency


7. 2010 Grade 8/Hard Block 9, #7(28.16%) [QUOTE ID: 13] DOES NOT FORMAT!
  • The chart below shows how each of the three separate branches of the federal government can limit the powers of the other two. Complete the chart by filling in each of the empty boxes. The completed chart should have one power for each branch of government and one way in which that branch’s power is checked by another branch.
HE003245.g01
HE003245.g01

ANSWER-RESPONSE GUIDE


8. 2006 Grade 12/Medium block 5, #7(42.52%, C) [QUOTE ID: 14]
Questions 7-8are about federalism.
7.Federalism: A way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government have authority over the same land and people.
Which fact about American government reflects the above definition of federalism?
  1. Power is divided among legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
  2. Private organizations in the United States do much of the work that is performed by local governments in other countries.
  3. Citizens in the United States are subject to both state and federal laws.
  4. Citizens in the United States have a right to protection from intrusion into their private affairs.

9. 2006 Grade 12/Medium block 5, #8(49.58%, B) [QUOTE ID: 15]
8.Federalism: A way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government have authority over the same land and people.
In the United States, what occurs when state and national laws are in conflict?
  1. The state law is enforced.
  2. The national law is enforced.
  3. The state decides which law to enforce.
  4. The public holds a referendum to decide which law should be enforced.

10. 2010 Grade 12/Medium Block 6, #13(49.64%, C) [QUOTE ID: 16]
Questions 11 - 14 refer to the following passage. The War Powers Act of 1973 was an attempt by Congress to increase its authority over the use of military force. The provisions of this act include the following.
  • The President must report to Congress within 48 hours after sending troops to an area where hostilities are imminent.
  • Within 60 days after troops are sent, Congress must, by declaration of war or other specific statutory authorization, provide for the continuation of the United States military presence.
  • If Congress fails to provide such authorization, the President must withdraw the troops.
  • If Congress passes a concurrent resolution (which the President may not veto) directing the removal of United States troops, the President must comply.
What is one power, not specified in the War Powers Act, that Congress can effectively use to limit the military authority of the President?
A. Impeaching Presidents who pursue unpopular military policies
B. Instructing military officers not to follow presidential orders
C. Refusing to provide funding for specific military operations
D. Independently negotiating treaties with foreign powers


11. 2010 Grade 12/Medium block 4, #9 (58.94%, A) [QUOTE ID: 17]
QK010239.g03
QK010239.g03

NOTE: Text on box reads, "The Kick the Bum Out Ballot Box Company."
9. Which of the following best captures the meaning of the cartoon above?
  1. Voters can limit the term of any member of Congress by simply exercising their right to vote.
  2. Term limits can be put in place only through an amendment to the Constitution.
  3. Term limits are needed to prevent incumbents from staying in office for life.
  4. Voters too often throw good people out of office.