Democratic process/Compromise:

1. “Freedom is hammered out on the anvil of discussion, debate, and dissent.” Hubert H. Humphrey

Possible image for this:
Caption: Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts making Senate floor speech, 1830
(‍One of the giants of Senate history, Daniel Webster here speaks about threats to the Union and concludes: "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable."

‍Source: U.S. Senate Historical Office)

http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/senate_thru_ages/1800_1859.jsp?Counter=1


CITATION
Healy, George P.A. , artist. "Webster's Reply to Hayne." 1851. Painting. Boston Art Commission. From U. S. Senate: Art & History. Washington, D.C. http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/senate_thru_ages/1800_1859.jsp?Counter=1. (accessed December 1, 2011).

webster_l.jpg
webster_l.jpg

webster_l.jpg

humphrey.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/92519980/

CITATION
"Hubert H. Humphrey, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly right." c1970. Photograph. From Library of Congress Congressional Portrait Collection. Washington, D.C.. Web. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/92519980/. (accessed December 1, 2011).

SAME BIO AS EARLIER

2. “The House is in daily contact with the people of the country, and so long as they may merit the confidence of the people, no real danger can come to the Republic we all love.” Rep. Nicholas Longworth of Ohio


POSSIBLE IMAGE:

Robert La Follette, Sr., at rural fair

"Fighting Bob" La Follette was a Progressive from Wisconsin who emphasized "the will of the people" and spoke out against the power of big business in government. He was a county district attorney before serving in both the House and Senate. Here he addresses a crowd at a rural fair in Cumberland, Wisconsin in 1897.
http://www.lafollette.wisc.edu/images/LafLegacy/LaF%201897-2.jpg

[[MASON NOTE - This image is too small, how about one we could get at full size from the LOC?]]

(GOT THIS JPG VERSION BUT ALSO HAVE A TIF VERSION IF NEEDED)

cq_for_mason_-_lafollette.jpg

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005692149/

CITATION
Miller, Henry, photographer. "[Robert Marion La Follette, 1855-1925, campaigning for Congress in Cumberland, Wisconsin, 1897 - speaking from back of wagon, using oratorical pose and gesture.]" 1897. Photograph. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Washington, D.C. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005692149/. (accessed 1 Dec 2011).


LaF_1897-2.jpg


longworth.jpg


cq_rog_longworth.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005685117/
CITATION
"[Nicholas Longworth]." 1903. Photograph. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Washington, D.C. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005685117/. (accessed 1 Dec 2011).

Nicholas Longworth was a Republican Congressman during the first few decades of the 20th century. He served as House Majority Leader
from 1923 to 1925 and Speaker of the House from 1925 until 1931. His terms as speaker were marked by fairness to both parties, and he
helped restore the standing of the House.


3. “What I want is to get done what the people desire to have done, and the question for me is how to find that out exactly.” Abraham Lincoln

Maybe use this image:
Caption: President Lincoln continued construction of new U.S. Capitol dome during Civil War, as symbol of nation's continuity, 18--:

1204feat4a_efront_1859.jpg
1204feat4a_efront_1859.jpg


CITATION
Architect of the Capitol

POSSIBLE AOC ALTERNATIVE: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2009631495/

Lincoln.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2008680969/resource/
CITATION
Berger, Anthony, photographer. "[Abraham Lincoln, three-quarter length portrait, seated, facing right; hair parted on Lincoln's right side]." 1864. Photograph. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Washington, D.C. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2008680969/. (accessed 1 Dec 2011).


BIO SAME AS EARLIER


4. "Democracy is cumbersome, slow, and inefficient, but in due time, the voice of the people will be heard and their latent wisdom will prevail." Thomas Jefferson
Possible image for this.
Caption: Proposed location for new nation's capital on Potomac River, 1801
(T. Cartwright after George Beck. George Town and Federal City, City of Washington. Hand-colored aquatint. London and Philadelphia: Atkins and Nightingale, 1801. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (098.01.00))
potomac.jpg
potomac.jpg

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002695146/
http://myloc.gov/Exhibitions/creatingtheus/BillofRights/Electionof1800/ExhibitObjects/NewFederalCapital.aspx

CITATION
Cartwright, T., artist. "George Town and Federal City, or City of Washington." 1801. Print. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: Popular Graphic Arts, Washington, DC.http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002695146/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

31_00006.jpg
http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/art/common/image/Painting_31_00006.htm

CITATION
Sully, Thomas, artist. "Thomas Jefferson." 1856. Painting. From U. S. Senate: Art & History. http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/art/artifact/Painting_31_00006.htm. (accessed on 1 Dec 2011).

BIO SAME AS EARLIER

5. “People talk about the middle of the road as though it were unacceptable. Actually, all human problems, excepting morals, come into the gray areas. Things are not all black and white. There have to be compromises. The middle of the road is all of the usable surface. The extremes, right and left, are in the gutters. ” Dwight D. Eisenhower

Possible image for this:
Caption: Cross-section of design of new U.S. Capitol dome, 1859
(Drawing by Thomas U. Walter showing the new high dome that was added on top of the existing dome to be more in proportion with the large House and Senate wings that were added to the Capitol.
Source: Architect of the Capitol)
http://www.aoc.gov/cc/capitol/rotunda.cfm
CITATION
Walter, Thomas, artist. "1859 Cross-Section Drawing of the Capitol Dome and Rotunda." 1859. Painting. From Architect of the Capitol. Washington, D.C. http://www.aoc.gov/cc/capitol/rotunda.cfm. (accessed on 1 Dec 2011).
dome_xsec.jpg
dome_xsec.jpg

eisenhower2.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/91482942/resource/
CITATION
"[Dwight D. Eisenhower, half-length portrait, facing slightly right, holding glasses]." c1954. Photograph. New York Times. From Library of Congress. New York, NY. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/91482942/. (accessed 1 Dec 2011).

Dwight D. Eisenhower was a five-star general in the United States Army and the 34th President of the United States. During World War II,
Eisenhower was the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe. He was responsible for the planning and execution of the 1944-1945
invasions of France and Germany.


6. “I am not proud of the way in which the Senate has been made a publicity platform for irresponsible sensationalism... I want to see our nation recapture the strength and unity it once had when we fought the enemy instead of ourselves.” Sen. Margaret Chase Smith of Maine

Senate Chamber, 1848

Lithograph by Augustus Theodore Frederick Kollner showing the Old Senate Chamber in the Capitol, ten years before the Senate moved to its current chamber.
Source: U.S. Senate Historical Office
http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/art/artifact/GraphicArt_38_00964.htm
CITATION
Kollner, Augustus T.F., artist. "Senate Chamber, Washington." 1848. Painting. From U. S. Senate: Art & History. Washington, D.C. http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/art/artifact/GraphicArt_38_00964.htm. (accessed on 1 Dec 2011).
senate_chamber_art.gif
[[MASON NOTE - This image is too small, how about one we could something similar at full size from the LOC website?]]
(Will have to get some the Senate contact -- not available at Library.)


Margaret Chase Smith by Ronald Frontin
Margaret Chase Smith by Ronald Frontin

ttp://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/art/common/generic/Margaret_Chase_Smith_Unveiling.htm

BIO SAME AS EARLIER


7. “You don’t do the right thing because of the consequences. If you’re wise, you do it regardless of the consequences.” Rep. Jeanette Rankin of Montana

POSSIBLE IMAGE FOR THIS:
INSIDE ROTUNDA, PAINTING ON WALL
ROTUNDA2.jpg
http://www.american-architecture.info/USA/USA-Washington/004-capitol_rotunda_big.jpg

CITATION
"Capitol Rotunda." n.d. Photograph. American Architecture http://www.american-architecture.info/USA/USA-Washington/004-capitol_rotunda_big.jpg. (accessed December 1, 2011).

Rankin2.jpg
Rankin2.jpg

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/hec2009005224/resource/

CITATION
Harris & Ewing, photographer. "Rankin, Janette [Jeanette], Miss." c1905-1945. Photograph. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division:
Harris & Ewing Collection. Washington, D.C. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/hec2009005224/. (accessed December 8, 2011).).

Jeanette Rankin was the first woman to serve in Congress, representing Montana in the House of Representatives from 1917 to 1919 and again
from 1941 until 1943. Rankin was a part of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and worked towards equal rights for women.
As a pacifist, she voted against going entering into World War I and World War II.



8. "The responsible legislator will begin with a policy or program that he believes to be in the national interest and may then resort to technique and salesmanship to win its enactment. The new breed of Congressperson seems more inclined to test the market first, to ascertain what is in current demand, and then to design a program to fit the market." Sen. James W. Fulbright of Arkansas
external image 004-Capitol,%20dusk%20%28good%29.jpg
http://www.american-architecture.info/USA/USA-Washington/DC-004.htm

CITATION
"Capitol Building." n.d. Photograph. American Architecture. http://www.american-architecture.info/USA/USA-Washington/DC-004.htm. (accessed December 1, 2011).

fullbright.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/95513105/

CITATION
"[J. William Fulbright, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing front]." 1968. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: Congressional Portrait Collection, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/95513105/. (accessed December 8, 2011).

James W. Fulbright was a U.S. Congressman from Arkansas. He served in the House of Representatives from 1943 to 1945 and the Senate
from 1945 until 1974. A Southern Democrat, Fulbright was a leading voice in the Congress for multilateralism, and the Fulbright Program, an
international educational exchange program, was named in his honor.


9. "Facts are stubborn things; and whatever may be our wishes, our inclination, or the dictates of our passions, they cannot alter the state of facts and evidence." John Adams

1806 drawing of US Capitol by Latrobe
TITLE: United States Capitol, Washington, D.C. Perspective from the northeast (1806)

latrobe.jpg
latrobe.jpg

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2001697195/
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.09501/

CITATION
Latrobe, Benjamin Henry, 1764-1820, architect."[United States Capitol, Washington, D.C. Perspective from the northeast]." 1806. Drawing on paper. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2001697195/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

ADAMS
adams.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=207516881

CITATION
Newsam, Albert, artist. "John Adams, 2nd President of the United States / on stone by A. Newsam ; P.S. Duval Lith., Philad'a." c1846. Lithograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2009631980/. (accessed December 8, 2011).

John Adams was the second President of the United States and one of the country's Founding Fathers. Prior to the presidency he was the first
Vice President of the United States, an ambassador to Great Britain and the Netherlands, and a Massachusetts delegate to the First and
Second Continental Congresses.


10. “No man who serves in the Congress of the United States can accomplish anything independently and by himself.” Rep. Carl Vinson of Georgia

Possible image for this:
Caption: Drawing of U.S. Capitol and nearby buildings, 1839

(TITLE: Capitol and part of Washington City, 1839)
cap1839.jpg
cap1839.jpg

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.22796/

CITATION
Kollner, Augustus, artist. "Capitol and part of Washington City." 1839. Drawing. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: Drawings (Documentary), Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2004662004/. (accessed December 14, 2011).


vinson.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/97505093/

CITATION
"[Carl Vinson, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly left]." 1945. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/97505093/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

Carl Vinson was a Democratic Congressman from Georgia who served in the House of Representatives from 1914 until 1965. He became the
Dean of the U.S. House of Representatives in 1961 and was the first member to serve over 50 years in the House of Representatives. He was
a leading voice in Congress for expanding America's military power.

11. “Nearly all legislation is the result of compromise.” Rep. Joseph Cannon of Illinois
Possible image for this:
Caption: Sen. Henry Clay of Kentucky addressing Senate, proposing Compromise of 1850 to save the Union
(Engraved by Robert Whitechurch after a painting by Peter Rothermel, 1855, Source: U.S. Senate Historical Office)
http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/image/Compromise_of_1850.htm

CITATION
Robert Whitechurch after a painting by Peter Rothermel. "Foreseeing the danger of civil war, Senator Henry Clay (KY) shaped a compromise to save the Union in 1850. His efforts to avoid war ultimately failed." 1855. Engraving. U.S. Senate: Art & History, Washington, DC. http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/image/Compromise_of_1850.htm. (accessed December 14, 2011).

Clay.jpg
Clay.jpg

Clay.jpg

cannon.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3f06266/

CITATION
Hartsook, Fred, photographer. "[Joseph G. Cannon, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing front]." c1915. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2001697070/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

Joseph Cannon was U.S. Representative from Illinois and Speaker of the House of Representatives. First elected in 1873, he served for over
40 non-consecutive years and held the position of Speaker from 1903 to 1911. As Speaker of the House, Cannon wielded unprecedented power
while holding the chair position on the Rules Committee.

12. "I am a man of fixed and unbending principles, the first of which is to be flexible at all times." Sen. Everett Dirksen of Illinois

external image 004-capitol_national_statuary_hall_ceiling_big.jpg
http://www.american-architecture.info/USA/USA-Washington/004-capitol_national_statuary_hall_ceiling_big.jpg

CITATION
"Statuary Hall.". n.d.. Photograph. American Architecture http://www.american-architecture.info/USA/USA-Washington/004-capitol_national_statuary_hall_ceiling_big.jpg. (accessed December 14, 2011).


Senator Everett Dirksen of Illinois

Come see this painting of Everett Dirksen
Come see this painting of Everett Dirksen

Everett Dirksen was a Republican Congressman from Illinois. He served in the House of Representatives from 1933 until 1949 and in the
Senate from 1951 until 1969. As Senate Minority Leader during the 1960's, Dirksen helped write and pass major civil rights legislation, like
the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Opening House Act of 1968.




13. "You take people as far as they will go, not as far as you would like them to go." Rep. Jeanette Rankin of Montana


external image US_Capitol_Building_seen_from_Pennsylvania_Ave.jpg
The West front of the United States Capitol
http://www.american-architecture.info/USA/USA-Washington/DC-004.htm

CITATION
"The West front of the United States Capitol.". n.d.. Photograph. American Architecture. http://www.american-architecture.info/USA/USA-Washington/DC-004.htm. (accessed December 14, 2011).
.
Rankin2.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/hec2009005224/resource/
BIO SAME AS EARLIER

14. "Let us not seek the Republican answer or the Democratic answer, but the right answer. Let us not seek to fix the blame for the past. Let us accept our own responsibility for the future." John F. Kennedy

Possible image for this:
Caption: Image of U.S. Capitol as it looked in 1846 before redesign
(TITLE: United States Capitol, Washington, D.C., east front elevation)

east_front_elevation_2.jpg
east_front_elevation_2.jpg

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2004664419

CITATION
Plumbe, John, 1809-1857, photographer. "[United States Capitol, Washington, D.C., east front elevation]." c1846. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2004664419/. (accessed December 1, 2011).



KENNEDY.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/96523447/resource/
SAME BIO AS LATER

15. "The best politics is no politics." Sen. Henry "Scoop" Jackson of Washington

Possible image:
Caption: Handwritten copy of George Washington's first inaugural address, suggesting that Congress consider taking up amendments to the Constitution (Bill of Rights), 1789
"George Washington's first inaugural address, 30 April 1789"
Washington_inaugural.gif
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/mcc:@field(DOCID+@lit(mcc/053)))

CITATION
Washington, George. "George Washington's first inaugural address, 30 April 1789." 1789. Manuscript. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: American Memory Collection, Washington, DC. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/mcc:@field(DOCID @lit(mcc/053))). (accessed December 14, 2011).



scoop_jackson.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/96515968/resource/
CITATION
"[Sen. Henry M. Jackson of Washington, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing right]." c1950-1970. Photograph. From Library of Congress Congressional Portrait Collection. Washington, D.C. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/96515968/. (accessed on 1 Dec 2011).

Henry Jackson was a long-time Democratic Congressman from the state of Washington, serving in the House of Representatives from 1941 until
1953 and in the Senate from 1953 to 1983. In 1960 he was named the chairman of the Democratic National Convention, and in 1971 and 1975 sought the Democratic nomination for the
presidency. He was a leader in Congress on national security, energy, and environmental issues.


16. "A republic gets its strength from the consent of the governed and from a consensus of shared objectives. It gets only weakness and disappointment from secrecy and surprise." Sen. Edmund S. Muskie of Maine

POSSIBLE IMAGE:
Source: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division
http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ggbain.24125
CITATION
Bain News Service. "Capitol at night." n.d. Photograph. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: George Grantham Bain Collection.. Washington, D.C. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/ggb2005024371/. (accessed on 1 Dec 2011).
CapitolAtNight2.jpg


muskie.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002715164/
CITATION
"Edmund S. Muskie." c1966. Photograph. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Washington, D.C. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002715164/. (accessed 1 Dec 2011).

Edmund Muskie was a Democratic politician from Maine who served as a U.S. Senator and Secretary of State. Prior to his time in Washington
he was governor of Maine from 1955 to 1959. Muskie served in the U.S. Senate from 1959 until 1980, when he became the Secretary of
State under President Jimmy Carter. In the Senate he helped craft several environmental protection laws.

17. "I'm an old-fashioned, garden variety of Republican who believes in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, in Abraham Lincoln, who accepts the challenges as they arise from time to time, and who is not unappreciative of the fact that this is a dynamic economy in which we live and sometimes you have to change your position." Sen. Everett M. Dirksen of Illinois

POSSIBLE IMAGE:

Senate filibuster

A weary senator rests on a cot in the Old Senate Chamber during a lengthy filibuster.
Source: U.S. Senate Historical Office
http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/image/Filibuster_Cots.htm
filibuster_xl.jpg
CITATION
"A weary senator rests on a cot in the Old Senate Chamber during a lengthy filibuster." n.d. Photograph. From U.S. Senate: Art & History, Washington, D.C. (accessed 1 Dec 2011).
http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/image/Filibuster_Cots.htm


Come see this painting of Everett Dirksen
Come see this painting of Everett Dirksen


BIO SAME AS BEFORE

18. "You've got to work things out in the cloakroom, and when you've got them worked out, you can debate a little before you vote." Lyndon B. Johnson

Possible image for this:,
Caption: Lithograph of newly constructed House chamber in U.S. Capitol, 1866
(1866 lithograph by E. Sachse & Co., showing the "new" House of Representatives chamber with visitors in the gallery.

‍Source: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division)

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsc.00265 http://www.loc.gov/rr/mss/guide/ms025014.jpg

sasche.jpg
sasche.jpg

sasche.jpg
CITATION
E. Sachse & Co. "The House of Representatives, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C." 1866. Litograph. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Washington, D.C. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/98507527/. (accessed 1 Dec 2011).


LBJ2.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003673956/resource/
BIO SAME AS BEFORE



EXTRA IMAGE:

Possible image for this:
Caption: Photograph of U.S. Capitol in 1851 showing new wing extension
(The Capitol in 1851, Washington, D.C.)
(Largest image available online.)
cap_1851.jpg
cap_1851.jpg




EXTRA IMAGE:
KENNEDY ADDRESSING CONGRESS
KENNEDY.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=31283069

EXTRA IMAGES:
Possible image for this:
Caption: Construction of U.S. Capitol dome during Civil War, 1860

(TITLE: Dome Construction, November 16, 1860)
under_construction.jpg
under_construction.jpg

http://www.aoc.gov/cc/photo-gallery/capitol_views.cfm

EXTRA IMAGE:


john-adams-picture.jpg
http://www.visitingdc.com/president/john-adams-picture.htm
EXTRA IMAGE:

LINCOLN_PORTRAIT.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/highsm.03733/
CITATION
Carol M Highsmith. "Abraham Lincoln portrait in the Lincoln room, Blair House, located across from the White House, Washington, D.C." Painting. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.Washington, D.C. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2010719208/. (accessed 1 Dec 2011).

EXTRA IMAGE:
jefferson.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/96522974/resource/
CITATION
Cornelius Tiebout. "Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States." c1801. Engraving. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Washington, D.C. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/96522974/. (accessed 1 Dec 2011).


EXTRA IMAGE:
Everett_Dirksen.gif
ttp://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005685115/resource/
CITATION
"[Everett Dirksen]." Photograph. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division , Washington, D.C. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005685115/.(accessed 1 Dec 2011).



dirksen.jpg

JEFFERSON1.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3g05179/
CITATION
Charles Balthazar Julien Fevret de Saint-Mémin. "[Thomas Jefferson, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing right]." 1805. Painting. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Washington, D.C. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/97503644/. (accessed 1 Dec 2011).


EXTRA IMAGE:

LONGWORTH2jpg.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3a05572/
CITATION
"Nicholas Longworth, 1864-1931." c1928. Photograph. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Washington, D.C. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2001704109/.


jefferson3.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/93500130/
CITATION
Gilbert Stuart. "Th. Jefferson 1713-1826." c1929. Painting. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Washington, D.C. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/93500130/. (accessed 1 Dec 2011).

...HERE'S A QUESTION ABOUT THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS...
1. 2010 Grade 12/Hard block 3, #9 (28.29%)

Questions 8 - 9 are based on the situation described below. Teresia is a small country that has been invaded by its neighbor Corollia. The king of Teresia is a long-standing United States ally who has been living in exile since the Corollian invasion. Teresia is an important exporter of uranium; it sends most of its supply to members of the European Community. The king appeals to the United States and the United Nations for military help in driving Corollia from his country.
  1. Identify two pieces of information NOT given above that you would need before you could decide whether or not the United States military should help Teresia. Explain why each piece of information would be important.
1)

2)

Answer/Response


2. 2010 Grade 12/Hard block 6, #19 (34.1%, D)
Questions 18 - 19 are based on the quotations below from the Supreme Court case Texas v. Johnson(1989). Johnson was convicted of flag desecration for burning the flag rather than for uttering insulting words. If there is a bedrock principle underlying the First Amendment, it is that the Government may not prohibit the expression of an idea simply because society finds the idea itself offensive or disagreeable. . . . We do not consecrate the flag by punishing its desecration, for in doing so we dilute the freedom that this cherished emblem represents.
—Justice Brennan, majority opinion
Uncritical extension of constitutional protection to the burning of the flag risks the frustration of the very purpose for which organized governments are instituted. . . . The flag is not simply another "idea" or "point of view" competing for recognition in the marketplace of ideas. . . . I cannot agree that the First Amendment invalidates the. . . laws which make criminal the public burning of the flag.
—Justice Rehnquist, dissenting opinion

19.Which of the following best paraphrases Justice Brennan’s argument?
  1. Citizens may express themselves in any manner they feel is justified and be protected by the First Amendment.
  2. The Court should deal with First Amendment issues on a case-by-case basis.
  3. It is constitutional to ban the uttering of insulting words, but not to ban flag burning.
  4. In our constitutional democracy, we may not limit the expression of ideas with which the majority disagrees

3. 2010 Grade 8 /Hard Block 7, #16 (22.82%)
Questions 15 - 16 refer to the quotation below by Thomas Jefferson.
"I would rather have newspapers and no government than government and no newspapers."
  1. Give two examples of how newspapers and other media influence politics and the democratic process.
1)

2)

Answer/Response

4. 2010 Grade 8/Hard block 7 #15 (32.59%, C)
Questions 15 - 16 refer to the quotation below by Thomas Jefferson. "I would rather have newspapers and no government than government and no newspapers."
15. The quotation indicates that Thomas Jefferson was concerned about guaranteeing
  1. mass literacy
  2. a weak central government
  3. the free exchange of ideas
  4. government control of the press

5. 2010 Grade 8/Medium Block 8, #9 (use with one of the quotes on compromise) (53.74%, B)
Question 9 refers to the cartoon below.
QK070075.g03
QK070075.g03

9.Which sentence best explains the message of the cartoon as a whole?
  1. Plants and animals will all die if we do not do more to protect the environment.
  2. We have to protect the environment but also allow people to use natural resources.
  3. People should not be allowed to go into wilderness areas because they hurt the environment.
  4. Pollution is not as serious a problem as some people think it is.



6. 2010 Grade 12/Medium block 6, #4 (46.52%)
4.Television has powerfully influenced the political process. In the space below, give one positive and one negative impact that television has on the political process.
Positive impact:

Negative impact:

Answer/Response



7. 2010 Grade 12/Easy block 3 #7 (73.95%, D)
7. One explanation for the large number of interest groups in the United States is that
  1. there is little enforcement of laws forbidding their existence
  2. members of these groups can easily get to see the President and justices of the Supreme Court
  3. the tax code forbids taxing any interest group
  4. there is a wide variety of religions, occupations, and beliefs in the country


8. 2006 Grade 8/Hard block 4, #15 (32.46%, A)
Questions 15-16refer to the passage below. Over recent years the National Rifle Association (NRA) has played an important role in politics. It has a large number of members, whose voting strength tends to impress legislators. It holds regular meetings with members of Congress and federal bureaucrats. It gives campaign contributions to candidates who oppose gun control and spends money directly to oppose gun control supporters.

15.The meetings with legislators and bureaucrats described in the passage are known as
  1. lobbying
  2. vetoing
  3. filibustering
  4. gerrymandering

9. 2010 Grade 8/Medium Block 9, #2 (maybe with Adams quote on facts) (52.45%, C)
Questions 1 - 3 are based on the excerpt below from an editorial about a proposed bill in Congress. Television Doesn’t Kill People, People Do.
If the proposed bill becomes law, a government-appointed board will review all television programming and have the right to censor shows the board believes are too violent. This is a bad idea.
It is true that there is a lot of violence on television. Studies show that children are likely to see thousands of violent acts on television by the time they are adults. But we do not really know what effect seeing violence on television has on children. No one has been able to prove that watching violence on television makes kids commit crimes. Censoring television would be restricting the right to free speech. This is not the way to solve our crime problem. There are plenty of direct causes of crime in our society, and we would be better off tackling them.
  1. The author of the editorial does not like the proposed bill because it
  2. would take away good entertainment
  3. would be too expensive to enforce
  4. ignores the real causes of crime
  5. blames young people for crime



10. 2010 Grade 12/Hard block 3 #14 (34.29%, A)
14.People who claim that lobbying is a positive force in American politics often argue that lobbyists play an important role by
  1. supplying members of Congress with information and helping to draft legislation
  2. giving Supreme Court justices information they need to make decisions in difficult cases
  3. giving everybody equal power in the political process
  4. limiting access to public officials


11. 2010 Grade 8/Hard block 7, #6 (39.84%)
  1. Imagine that your school has a very small yard that the students use during lunchtime. Some students like to play games, such as kickball. Other students like to sit and talk with their friends. Sometimes, students who are playing games bump into students who are talking and eating lunch. Some of your classmates have been arguing about who gets to use different parts of the yard.You must come up with a plan to stop the arguing. Your plan should include
    • an idea to get your classmates to cooperate with you to solve the problem, and
    • one reasonable rule for everyone to follow that will stop the arguing.
    Take some time to think about the problem, and then write down your plan in the appropriate spaces below.
Give one idea that will get everyone to cooperate with you to solve the problem.

Answer/Response



12. 2010 Grade 12/Hard block 4, #10 (29%, A)
Questions 10 - 12 refer to the editorial below. In recent years, United States policy toward China has been confused. China is the world's most populous country and a major military power, and has become an increasingly valuable trading partner. It has been the view of Presidents, therefore, that it is in the United States interest to remain on good terms with the Beijing government. However, the human rights situation in China shows few signs of improving. In addition, the end of the Cold War has made the political logic of a close relationship with China less compelling. The trade relationship has been, to put it mildly, strained. The Chinese leadership has not responded to quiet diplomacy. It is, therefore, time to reconsider our relationship and break off diplomatic relations with China.
—The Madison Daily News
10.The editorial argues that the end of the Cold War has made "the political logic" of our relationship with China less compelling. The editorial is probably referring to the fact that
  1. we no longer need China as an ally to combat Soviet influence
  2. the United States should avoid entering into permanent alliances now that the Cold War is over
  3. we have few allies in the world who can be trusted consistently
  4. alliances can now be forged solely on the basis of shared economic interests



13. 2006 Grade 12/Easy block 5, #12 (62.16%, A)
Questions 12-13 are about the following situation. Members of a community have been arguing about the subject matter taught in the local high school. This argument has led both sides to demonstrate outside city council meetings. Also, one group staged a sit-in at the local board of education. Below are quotes from two citizens who have different opinions about these protests.
Patrick: "Government's most important job is to maintain order and protect public safety. How can elected officials ever do their work if people are criticizing them all the time?"
Elena: "I think it's important that people let their opinions be known. Protests are okay as long as they are not violent."

12.The argument between Patrick and Elena shows a debate common in American politics. This debate best reflects the conflict between
  1. the need to maintain order and the rights of individuals
  2. the will of the majority and the rights of the minority
  3. representative government and direct participatory democracy
  4. parental rights and governmental control of education



14. 2006 Grade 8/Medium block 6, #3 (55.39%, A)
Questions 9-10refer to the situation below. In your town, some of the citizens want to remove certain books from the public library because they think the books contain material that is harmful for children to read. Other citizens in the town want to keep the books in the library.

9.What argument could be used to defend the opinion that the books should be kept in the library?
  1. Democracy depends on the free expression of many different opinions.
  2. Democracy depends on allowing communities to vote on what can be read.
  3. Democracy depends on the smartest people deciding what books should be read.
  4. Democracy depends on limiting access to books.

15. 2010 Grade 12/Medium Block 4, #19 (56.88%, D)
Questions 17 - 19 refer to the quotation below, which is from the Supreme Court's decision in Marbury v. Madison(1803). "It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is. . . . A law repugnant to the constitution is void."

19. Which statement is most consistent with the decision in Marbury v. Madison?
  1. The courts should make laws.
  2. Majorities should be allowed to implement any policies they favor.
  3. American government should be a participatory democracy.
  4. The Constitution limits what government and majorities can do.

16. 2010 Grade 12/Medium block 4, #7 (54.6%, B)
7. The federal system encourages the growth of organized interest groups by
  1. allowing states to pay part of the operational costs of such groups
  2. offering several levels of government where groups can attempt to influence policy
  3. giving interest groups free building space in Washington, D.C.
  4. encouraging interest groups to take over many of the responsibilities of political parties



17. 2006 Grade 12/Hard block 7 #16 (37.4%, D)
Line graph showing the trend and disparity between the poverty line and the average yearly Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Benefit from 1960 to 1990.
Line graph showing the trend and disparity between the poverty line and the average yearly Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Benefit from 1960 to 1990.

16.Which of the following statements is supported by the data presented in the graph above?
  1. In current dollars the poverty line has decreased substantially in the thirty years following 1960.
  2. The average yearly AFDC benefits increased substantially during the Bush presidency, 1989-1992.
  3. In current dollars the average AFDC benefit remained constant over the period covered by the graph.
  4. Since about 1980, the average annual benefit of a family receiving AFDC has declined relative to the poverty line.



18. 2006 Grade 8/Easy Block 6, #12 (66.89%, B)
12.Sometimes the common good conflicts with individual rights. Which of the following is an example of this?
  1. A person is put in jail because she is guilty of a violent crime.
  2. A person must move out of his house so that a highway can be built.
  3. Schools are closed because of icy roads.
  4. A community organizes to clean up a vacant lot.