Citizen involvement:


1. “Politics ought to be the part-time profession of every citizen who would protect the rights and privileges of free men.” Dwight D. Eisenhower

Might use this AOC image:
5)
USC_from_LOCTJB_1921.jpg

CITATION
Architect of the Capitol

Ike.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3c04961/



BIO SAME AS BEFORE


2. “If you have a plan, we want to hear it. Tell your community leaders, your local officials, your governor, and your team in Washington. Believe me, your ideas count. An individual can make a difference.” George Herbert Walker Bush
Maybe use this AOC image.
Caption: View of Capitol dome from inside new Capitol Visitor Center, 200-
08_dome_thru_cvc_emancipation_hall.jpg
08_dome_thru_cvc_emancipation_hall.jpg


CITATION
Architect of the Capitol

BUSH
Bush.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=223818969

CITATION
Valdez, David, photographer. "[George Bush, half-length portrait, facing front]." 1989. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/89715763/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

George Herbert Walker Bush was a member of Congress from Texas, Vice President under Ronald Reagan, and then the 41st President of the
United States. Prior to the White House, he also served as the Director of Central Intelligence and U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations.
During the Bush presidency, the Berlin Wall fell and the Soviet Union dissolved.




3. “A popular government without popular information or the means of acquiring it is but a prologue to Farce or Tragedy or perhaps both. Knowledge will forever govern ignorance, and a people who mean to be their own Governors must arm themselves with the power knowledge gives.” James Madison

Could use this image from AOC:
Caption: Only one wing of the Capitol building was complete when Congress first convened in Washington, in 1800.
1) Capitol Before burning - James Madison of Virginia

CITATION:
Architect of the Capitol

3b51829u_before_burn.jpg
3b51829u_before_burn.jpg





jamesMadison4c-large.jpg
jamesMadison4c-large.jpg



SAME BIO AS BEFORE


4. "A government can be no better than the public opinion that sustains it." Franklin D. Roosevelt

Could use this AOC image of Bonus Marchers at Capitol, 1932:
25)
bonus-marchers_1932_eplaza_dome_lts.jpg
bonus-marchers_1932_eplaza_dome_lts.jpg


CITATION
Architect of the Capitol


FDR2.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.

SAME BIO AS EARLIER

5. “As citizens of this democracy, you are the rulers and the ruled, the lawgivers and the law-abiding, the beginning and the end.” Adlai Stevenson


Possible image: Two farmers in North Dakota looking at ballot outside schoolhouse, 1940
FARMERS.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=40196960

CITATION
Vachon, John, photographer. "Farmers looking at ballots posted outside of schoolhouse. Election day, McIntosh County, North Dakota." 1940. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives Collection, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/fsa2000042234/PP/. (accessed December 14, 2011).


IMAGE FROM LOC.
stevenson.jpg

cq_ci_stevenson.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/93507193/

CITATION
"[Adlai Stevenson, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing left]." 1949. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/93507193/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

Adlai Stevenson was a governor of Illinois who ran for the presidency twice, losing the election both times to Dwight Eisenhower. In the 1960
presidential election he again sought the Democratic nomination for president but lost to John F. Kennedy. Under President Kennedy,
Stevenson was appointed as the United States Ambassador to the United Nations, serving from 1961 until his death in 1965.


6. “Liberty cannot be preserved without a general knowledge among the people, who have a right...and a desire to know.” John Adams

Could use this AOC image:
Caption: Newspaper boys in front of Senate, 19--
1912_newsboys_with_Senate_behind.jpg
1912_newsboys_with_Senate_behind.jpg


CITATION
Architect of the Capitol

ADAMS:
adams.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=207516881

CITATION
Newsam, Albert. photographer. "John Adams, 2nd President of the United States / on stone by A. Newsam ; P.S. Duval Lith., Philad'a." c1846. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2009631980/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

SAME BIO AS EARLIER

7. "Freedom is never more than one generation away from extinction. We didn't pass it to our children in the bloodstream. It must be fought for, protected, and handed on for them to do the same." Ronald Reagan

Could use this image:
U.S. Army Recruiting Station, 1919
recruiting_station_2.jpg
recruiting_station_2.jpg

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/hec.12821/

CITATION
Harris & Ewing, photographer. "Army, U.S. Army Recruiting Station." 1919. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: Harris & Ewing Collection., Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/hec2008009142/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

ELAINE- LOC IMAGE OF REAGAN TO PULL IN:
reagan.jpg

cq_rp_reagan.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=229061854

CITATION
(See earlier citation)

SAME BIO AS EARLIER

8. “Alike for the nation and the individual, the one indispensable requisite is character.” Theodore Roosevelt

President Theodore Roosevelt leaving the Capitol Building
After conferring with members of Congress, 1912.
Source: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ggbain.10822 CapitolStepsTR.jpg

CITATION
Bain News Service, publisher. "Roosevelt leaving Capitol." 1912. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: George Grantham Bain Collection. Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ggbain.10822/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

TheodoreRooseveltGRindentif[1].jpg
http://www.public.navy.mil/airfor/cvn71/Pages/BIOGRAPHY.aspx

CITATION
(See earlier citation)

SAME BIO AS EARLIER

9. “The life of a republic lies certainly in the energy, virtue, and intelligence of its citizens.” Andrew Johnson

OHIO.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=233657564

CITATION
"Woman suffrage headquarters in Upper Euclid Avenue, Cleveland--A. (at extreme right) is Miss Belle Sherwin, President, National League of Women Voters; B. is Judge Florence E. Allen (holding the flag); C. is Mrs. Malcolm McBride." 1912. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/97500065/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

20a.jpg
http://www.history.army.mil/books/cg&csa/CG-Intro-II.htm

CITATION
"Andrew Jackson." ( Lithographic portrait from the collections of the National Archives.). n.d.. Photograph. National Archives, Washington, DC. http://www.history.army.mil/books/CG&CSA/CG-Intro-II.htm. (accessed December 14, 2011).

Andrew Johnson was Vice President under Abraham Lincoln and became President of the United States after Lincoln's assassination. He
served as a U.S. Representative from Tennessee for 10 years, and a Senator for 6 years. Prior to the Civil War, he was the only Southern
Senator opposed to secession.


10. “Our children should learn the general framework of their government and then they should know where they come in contact with the government, where it touches their daily lives and where their influence is exerted on the government. It must not be a distant thing, someone else’s business, but they must see how every cog in the wheel of a democracy is important and bears its share of responsibility for the smooth running of the entire machine.” Eleanor Roosevelt

Could use this AOC image:
Circa_1899_class_on_west_terrace_with_MIArc.jpg
Circa_1899_class_on_west_terrace_with_MIArc.jpg


CITATION
Architect of the Capitol



ELEANOR.jpg

cq_ci_eleanor.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/97515484/




ELEANOR2.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3a26699/

CITATION
"[Mrs. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly right]." c1933. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/93508122/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

Eleanor Roosevelt was the First Lady of President Franklin Roosevelt and a strong advocate for civil rights. She supported her husband's
New Deal policies and continued her activism for the New Deal coalition after his death in 1945, working to enhance the status of working women.

11. “The only title in our democracy superior to that of President is the title of citizen.” Justice Louis Brandeis

Could use this image from AOC:
[MASON FOUND LOC VERSION: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/hec2008008212/

11)
1918_e_plaza_a_visitors_and_glass_globes.jpg
1918_e_plaza_a_visitors_and_glass_globes.jpg


CITATION
Harris & Ewing, photographer. "Capitol, U.S. Visitors, Etc. Crowd." 1918. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: Harris & Ewing Collection. Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/hec2008008212/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

louis_d_brandeis_photo.jpg
http://www.oyez.org/sites/default/files/justices/louis_d_brandeis/louis_d_brandeis_photo.jpg

CITATION

"Louis D. Brandeis." n.d. The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law. <http://www.oyez.org/justices/louis_d_brandeis>. (accessed December 9, 2011).


Louis Brandeis was justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. Appointed by President Woodrow Wilson in 1916, Brandeis served on the
highest court until 1939.

12. “It is not the critic who counts: not the man who points out how the strong man stumbles or where the doer of deeds could have done better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena...” Theodore Roosevelt
Could use this image, crowd at Theodore Roosevelt inauguration at Capitol:
TRInaugjpg.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3a23452/

CITATION
"[Crowds outside and atop the U.S. Capitol listen to President Theodore Roosevelt speaking at his inauguration]." 1905. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2009634020/. (accessed December 14, 2011).


TheodoreRooseveltGRindentif[1].jpg
http://www.public.navy.mil/airfor/cvn71/Pages/BIOGRAPHY.aspx

BIO SAME AS BEFORE

13. “Let each person do his or her part. If one citizen is unwilling to participate, all of us are going to suffer. For the American dream, though it is shared by all of us, is realized in each one of us.” Rep. Barbara C. Jordan of Texas

Maybe use this image, plus a few more arranged on screen, drawn from wiki on First Congress/Dept of War:
riveter: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/fsac.1a34953/?co=fsac
riveter.jpg
riveter.jpg


CITATION
Hollem, Howard R., photographer. "Riveter at work on Consolidated bomber, Consolidated Aircraft Corp., Fort Worth, Texas." 1942. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Color Photographs, Washington, DC.http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/fsa1992000978/PP/. (accessed December 14, 2011).


BARBARA JORDAN IMAGE (from Google search))
external image jordan.gif
BIO SAME AS BEFORE

14. "My own philosophy is that you don't really belong to yourself. You have an obligation to the society which protected you when you were brought into the world, which taught you, which supported you and nurtured you. You have an obligation to repay it." Sen. Jacob K. Javits of New York



VOLUNTEER NURSES' AIDES IN DC, 1943
NURSES_AIDS.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=236950595

CITATION
Smith, Roger, photographer. "Answering call for volunteer nurses aides." 1943. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection. Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/oem2002007447/PP/. (accessed December 14, 2011).


JAVITS
JAVITS.jpg

cq_ci_javits.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=242193472

CITATION
George Jervas Photo Studio (New York, N.Y.), photographer. "[Jacob Javits, head-and-shoulders portrait, Republican senator from New York, facing left]." 1966. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: Congressional Portrait Collection, Washington, DC. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3b44245. (accessed December 1, 2011).

Jacob Javits was a liberal Republican U.S. Senator from New York who served in Congress from 1957-1981. He was known for his
expertise in several areas, including civil rights, consumer affairs, foreign policy, and health care.

15. "People often say that, in a democracy, decisions are made by a majority of the people. Of course, that is not true. Decisions are made by a majority of those who make themselves heard and who vote-- a very different thing." Rep. Walter H. Judd of Minnesota

VOTING IN NYC MAYORAL ELECTION, 1913
MAYORAL_ELECTION.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=261978447

CITATION
Bain News Service, publisher. "Mayoralty elections." 1913. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: George Grantham Bain Collection. Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/ggb2005014668/. (accessed December 14, 2011).


walter_judd.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=41245664

CITATION
"[Walter H. Judd, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing left]." c1950. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c05625. (accessed December 14, 2011).

Walter Judd was a U.S. Representative from Minnesota, serving in Congress from 1943 until 1963. Having worked for many years as a medical
missionary and physician, one of his major focuses in Congress was on public health. He was the keynote speaker of the 1960 Republican
National Convention.




16. "Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it's the only thing that ever has." Margaret Mead

COuld use image of Martin Luther King and other organizers of March on Washington, in front of Lincoln Memorial


march_group.jpg

cq_ci_mlk_group.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2011645466/

CITATION
Tretick, Stanley, photographer. "[Group portrait of several of the organizers of the March on Washington, among them are: Mathew Ahmann, Rabbi Joachim Prinz, John Lewis, Rev. Eugene Carson Blake, Whitney Young, A. Philip Randolph, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Roy Wilkins in front of the statue of Abraham Lincoln at the Lincoln Memorial]." 1963. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2011645466/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

image from google search:
http://www.basicfamouspeople.com/index.php?aid=3735

Margaret Mead aka
Margaret Mead aka


mead_digesu.jpg
http://www.interculturalstudies.org/Mead/index.html

CITATION
"Margaret Mead." n.d. Photograph. The Institute for Intercultural Studies http://www.interculturalstudies.org/Mead/index.html. (accessed December 8, 2011).

Margaret Mead was an anthropologist who studied the cultures of the people of Samoa, New Guinea, and Bali. Her work focused on
how children were raised and the transition from adolescence into adulthood. Her ethnographies include Coming of Age in Samoa
and Growing Up in New Guinea.




17. "Few of us can ever earn a Nobel Peace Prize, but all of us, each in our own lives, can do something to advance the cause of peace and brotherhood." Sen. Charles H. Percy of Illinois

external image US_Capitol_Dome_High_Res_Jan_2006.jpg
http://www.american-architecture.info/USA/USA-Washington/DC-004.htm

CITATION
"Capitol Dome." n.d. Photograph. American Architecture. http://www.american-architecture.info/USA/USA-Washington/DC-004.htm. (accessed December 1, 2011).


charles_percy.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/95513136/

CITATION
"[Charles H. Percy, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing right]." n.d.. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/95513136/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

Charles Percy was a U.S. Senator from Illinois, serving in Congress from 1967 to 1985. Prior to being elected to Congress, he was the
chairman of the Bell & Howell Corporation. In the Senate, he served on the banking, aging, and foreign relations committees.

18. "Democracy cannot succeed unless those who express their choice are prepared to choose wisely. The real safeguard of democracy, therefore, is education." Franklin D. Roosevelt


Caption: Young school children in Buffalo NY who also work in local cannery at night, 1910
CANNERY_KIDS.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=240990401

CITATION
Hine, Lewis W., photographer. "Cannery children in School # 2 Buffalo, N.Y." 1913. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: National Child Labor Committee Collection. Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/ncl2004000998/PP/. (accessed December 14, 2011).

FDR2.jpgh
ttp://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.
BIO SAME AS BEFORE

CITATION - See earlier citation

19. “Democracy is never a final achievement. It is a call to an untiring effort.” John F. Kennedy

Use for overall quote screen image:
OvalOffice_JFK_2_0.jpg
OvalOffice_JFK_2_0.jpg

http://www.whitehouse.gov/photos-and-video/photogallery/the-presidents/oval-office?category=29

CITATION
"President John F. Kennedy in the Oval Office. January 19, 2009." 2009. Photograph. The White House, Washington, DC. http://www.whitehouse.gov/photos-and-video/photogallery/the-presidents/oval-office?category=29. (accessed December 14, 2011).

CLOSE-UP IMAGES FROM LOC:
jfk.jpg

cq_ci_kennedy.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/93511088/

CITATION
Iwerks, Dave, photographer. "[John F. Kennedy, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly left]." c1960. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/93511088/. (accessed December 1, 2011).

John F. Kennedy was the 35th president of the United States, serving from 1961 until he was assassinated in 1963. He was the youngest
both a person ever to be elected to the office of president. Prior to his presidency he served as a Representative and a Senator from
Massachusetts. During his time in office, Kennedy handled the Cuban Missile Crisis and growing tensions with the Soviet Union.


20. "It is a blessing to die for a cause, because you can so easily die for nothing." Rep. Andrew J. Young of Georgia

IMAGE OF SEN ROBERT KENNEDY TALKING TO YOUNG PERSON IN POOR NEIGHBORHOOD
RFK.jpg

cq_rfk_and_kid.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3c33361/

CITATION
DeMarsico, Dick, photographer. "[Senator Robert] Kennedy discusses school with young Ricky Taggart of 733 Gates Ave.]" 1966. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003679638/. (accessed December 1, 2011).


YOUNG.jpg

cq_andrew_young.jpg


http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/89714667/

CITATION
"[Rev. Andrew Young, Democratic congressman from Georgia, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing right.]" 1972. Photograph. From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: Congressional Portrait Collection, Washington, DC. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/89714667/. (accessed December 1, 2011).

Andrew Jackson Young, Democrat from Georgia, served in the House of Representatives from 1973-1977. He also served as Mayor of Atlanta
and as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, 1977-1979. Young was a member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC) during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement, and was a supporter and friend of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.




EXTRA IMAGE:
might use this AOC image:

[MASON FOUND ON LOC: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/brh2003004927/PP/
Caption: Construction of Capitol dome during Civil War, 186-
12)
1863_64_trinity_church.jpg


EXTRA IMAGES:

james-madison-2.jpg
http://fellowshipofminds.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/james-madison-2.jpg

EXTRA IMAGE:
Eisenhower_color.jpg
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h85000/h85937k.jpg
EXTRA IMAGE:

john-adams.gif
http://www.american-presidents.com/john-adams


EXTRA IMAGE:

Bush.jpg
http://www-personal.umich.edu/~sarhaus/MapsAndTimelines/Fall2007/Sulaka/Bush.html

EXTRA IMAGE:

ronald_reagan2.jpg
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1186833/Ronald-Reagan-statue-erected-London--U-S-Embassy-unimpressed.html


EXTRA IMAGE:
SCHOOLROOM
SCHOOLROOM.jpg
utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=-&__utmk=257447753
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/fsa.8a04822/?__utma=37760702.1453536798.1314889759.1314898803.1314907575.3&__utmb=37760702.12.10.1314907575&__utmc=37760702&__utmx=-&__utmz=37760702.1314889759.1.1.utmcsr=(direct)
EXTRA IMAGE:

Possibly use this image. Wright Brothers at ...
(Group photo) http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppprs.00697/?co=wri
wright_group.jpg
wright_group.jpg

EXTRA IMAGE:
OR maybe use this image, with some other posters in background. Other posters could be WPA posters of citizen involvement in various forms.
builds_men.jpg
builds_men.jpg

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/94514699

EXTRA IMAGE:
jfk2.jpg


http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003667923/
Publication may be restricted. For information see "New York World-Telegram & ..." (http://lcweb.loc.gov/rr/print/res/076_nyw.html)

EXTRA IMAGE:

stevenson-adlai2.jpg
http://www.poorwilliam.net/al-020511.html

EXTRA IMAGE:
http://www.utexas.edu/features/archive/2003/jordan.html


Barbara Jordan
Barbara Jordan




EXTRA IMAGE:

fdr.jpg
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3c17121/


EXTRA IMAGE:


eleanor_roosevelt.jpg
http://www.udhr.org/history/biographies/bioer.htm


EXTRA IMAGE:
theodore.jpg

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/troosevelt_film/


QUESTIONS FROM NAEP:
...HERE'S A QUESTION ABOUT CITIZEN PARTICIPATION...

1. 2010 Grade 8/Medium Block 7, #3 (47.44%, D)
LD002113.g03
LD002113.g03

3. What problem in American politics is the subject of the cartoon above?
  1. Children are not learning enough about what their democratic rights are.
  2. Not enough people in the United States have the right to vote in democratic elections.
  3. People who do not really care about the country are trying to get elected to the government.
  4. People want democratic rights without really caring about their responsibilities to their country.

2. 2010 Grade 8/Hard Block 7, #2 (22.96%)

2. A bill has been proposed in the United States Congress that would help solve a problem you feel very strongly about. What are two specific actions you could take as a private citizen to help ensure that the bill becomes law?

ANSWER/RESPONSE






3. 2006 Grade 12/Hard block 5, #6 (24.84%)
6.Assume that you are a member of Students Against Drunk Driving (SADD) and that you believe that laws against drunk driving should be strengthened.
Identify two ways that you could try to get the laws changed. For each way explain why you think your actions could be effective.
1)

2)

ANSWER/RESPONSE


4. 2006 Grade 12/Medium block 7, #3 (50.88%, B)
"We need an intensified voter registration drive, a determined effort to integrate the public schools, lunch counters, public parks, theaters, etc."
— Martin Luther King, Jr., 1961 "These legislative and judicial victories did very little to improve the lot of millions of Negroes in the teeming ghettos of the North.... The issues which we confront are the hard core economic issues." — Martin Luther King, Jr., 1966

3.In what fundamental way do the two quotes above show different understandings of the rights of citizens?
  1. In the first quote, rights are assumed to belong to individuals; in the second quote rights are assigned to groups.
  2. The first quote focuses on political and legal rights; the second quote focuses on economic rights and opportunities.
  3. The first quote focuses on the rights of people in rural areas; the second quote focuses on the rights of people in cities.
  4. The first quote defines rights as belonging to all humans; the second quote defines rights as belonging only to citizens.


5. 2010 Grade 8/Medium Block 9, #18: (57.7%, D)
18. In the United States, which civil right belongs only to American citizens?
  1. Freedom of speech
  2. Freedom of assembly
  3. The right to legal representation if charged with a crime
  4. The right to vote in local, state, and national elections

6. 2006 Grade 8/Medium Block 4, #11 (41.51%, C)
11.If you and other people in your community believe strongly that the United States should change its position on a conflict with another country, whom should you contact?
  1. That country's ambassador to the United States
  2. The United Nations
  3. Your senators and congressional representative
  4. The governor of your state


7. 2010 Grade 8/Hard Block 7, #4 (38.73%, A)
Questions 4 - 5 refer to the Voter Declaration of Party Affiliation card below.
QK070043.g03
QK070043.g03


4. Why would a registered voter in some states need to fill out a voter declaration card?
  1. In some states, people cannot vote in a primary election without declaring a party affiliation.
  2. In some states, people cannot vote in a general election without declaring a party affiliation.
  3. In some states, people must vote in a primary election before they can vote in a general election.
  4. In some states, people must vote for the candidate from their political party in a general election.



8. 2010 Grade 8/Medium Block 9, #17: (44.33%, A)
17. Which of the following is a duty that United States citizens over the age of 18 are usually required by law to perform?
  1. Serve on a jury
  2. Vote in an election
  3. Belong to a political party
  4. Run for political office


9. 2010 Grade 8/Medium Block 8 #4 (51.86%, D)
Questions 3 - 4 are based on the passage below. We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. . . . Resolved, that all laws which prevent women from occupying such a station in society as her conscience shall dictate, or which place her in a position inferior to that of man, are contrary to the great precept of nature, and therefore of no force or authority.
—Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions, July 19-20, 1848
4.The people who wrote the passage were most likely
  1. government officials explaining a government policy
  2. journalists criticizing the federal government
  3. candidates campaigning for public office
  4. citizens trying to change laws they believed were unfair


10. 2010 Grade 8/Easy/Medium Block 8, 15,16 (75.12%, A; 46.27%, D)
Questions 15 - 16are about the application for a parade permit shown below.
LD002001.g03
LD002001.g03

The town leaders require a permit for a parade to make sure that
  1. the parade does not create safety or traffic problems
  2. everyone in the town gets to see the parade
  3. the town leaders can meet the people in charge of the parade
  4. the town can get a list of all the people marching in the parade

16.Which of the following is the best reason why the town has to accept most parade permit applications?
  1. Fees collected from parade permit applications are the main source of money for towns.
  2. The Constitution says that parades are an important part of American democracy.
  3. A majority of citizens support parades and large public gatherings.
  4. The right to assemble peacefully is guaranteed in the United States.

11. 2006 Grade 8/Medium block 6, #15 (46.89%, D)
Questions 15-17refer to the poster below, which is from the Second World War.
Poster heading: Save Freedom of Worship. Poster image: men and women praying. Poster image caption: Each according to the dictates of his own conscience. Poster footer in larger text: Buy war bonds.
Poster heading: Save Freedom of Worship. Poster image: men and women praying. Poster image caption: Each according to the dictates of his own conscience. Poster footer in larger text: Buy war bonds.


15.What is the poster primarily trying to get people to do?
  1. Attend religious services
  2. Pray for American success in the war
  3. Join the army
  4. Lend the government money to help it fight the war





12. 2006 Grade 8/Hard block 6, #13 (39.52%)
Questions 13-14refer to the situation below. Amanda and her friends have noticed these two problems in their neighborhood.
Problem 1: The garbage cans in the public park are overflowing.
Problem 2: Many younger children have trouble crossing the busy streets on their way home from school.

13.What is one thing Amanda and her friends could do on their own to help solve Problem 1?

What is one thing Amanda and her friends could do on their own to help
solve Problem 2?

ANSWER/RESPONSE


13. 2006 Grade 8/Medium Block 4 #3 (42.84%)
Questions 1-3 refer to the photograph below of the 1963 March on Washington.
Photograph of Martin Luther King Jr. and a group of African Americans holding hands and linking arms together. Some have their eyes closed and bowed heads while others in the background hold up American flags.
Photograph of Martin Luther King Jr. and a group of African Americans holding hands and linking arms together. Some have their eyes closed and bowed heads while others in the background hold up American flags.
Bruce Davidson/Magnum Photos

3.What are two specific ways in which marches and demonstrations such as the one illustrated can achieve political goals?
1)

2


ANSWER/RESPONSE



14. 2010 Grade 8/Medium block 8, #14. (40.65%, B)
14. The Sierra Club is a nongovernmental organization that works to preserve and protect the environment. What is an accurate statement about organizations such as the Sierra Club?
  1. These organizations are not democratic because they only allow certain people to become members.
  2. These organizations can often influence politics more than individuals can.
  3. These organizations are effective because they meet the needs of all members.
  4. These organizations tend to avoid controversial political issues.



15. 2010 Grade 8/Easy Block 8, #12 (61.04%, C)
Questions 12 - 13 refer to the graph below.
QK010314.g03
QK010314.g03

12.What does the graph show about voting behavior?
  1. A majority of Americans never vote in presidential elections.
  2. All eligible voters voted in the 1960 election.
  3. Voter turnout generally declined from 1896 to 1988.
  4. Fewer candidates have run for President since 1952.

16. 2010 Grade 8/Hard Block 8, #13 (26%)

Questions 12 - 13 refer to the graph below.
QK010314.g03
QK010314.g03


13. As a member of your school’s civics club, you have volunteered to speak before a school assembly. You bring the graph with you to emphasize the importance of participating in the democratic process. First, you explain why you are concerned by what the graph shows. Then you encourage the students to become more involved.
Give one reason why you are concerned about the trend shown in the graph.

Suggest two practical ways students at your school can get involved and help reverse the trend.
1)

2)

ANSWER/RESPONSE





17. 2010 Grade 8/Hard Block 9, #9 (31.86%)
Questions 8 - 9 refer to the photograph below. The photograph was taken at the "Rally for Freedom" in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China, in 1989.
QK070121.g03
QK070121.g03


(9)Give one important reason why the statue shown in the photograph was used by the demonstrators in Tiananmen Square.

ANSWER/RESPONSE



18. 2006 Grade 12/Medium block 7, #15 (maybe use with FDR quote above on education) (44.58%, B)
Questions 14-15 refer to the following passage from the 1848 report of Horace
Mann, secretary to the Massachusetts Board of Education. According to the European theory, men are divided into classes—some to toil and earn, others to seize and enjoy. According to the Massachusetts theory, all are to have an equal chance for earning. Vast and overshadowing private fortunes are among the greatest dangers to which the happiness of the people in a republic can be subjected.
The main idea set forth in the creeds of some political reformers, or revolutionizers, is, that some people are poor because others are rich. This idea supposes a fixed amount of property in the community, which, by fraud or force, or arbitrary law, is unequally divided among men. But education creates or develops new treasures, treasures not before possessed or dreamed of by anyone.

15.Mann suggests that universal public education can prevent the
  1. accumulation of private wealth
  2. formation of a rigid and permanent class system
  3. need for public charity
  4. formation of stable republican government


19. 2010 Grade 12/Medium block 4, 13, 14 (probably combine these) (44.18%; 66.8%)
Questions 13 - 14 are about the privileges and responsibilities of United States citizens.
13. In the space below, list two privileges that United States citizens have that noncitizens do not.
1)

2)

ANSWER/RESPONSE


14. In the space below, list two of the responsibilities of United States citizens.
1)

2)

ANSWER/RESPONSE



20. 2006 Grade 8/Medium Block 4 #2(57.43%, B)
Questions 1-3 refer to the photograph below of the 1963 March on Washington.
Photograph of Martin Luther King Jr. and a group of African Americans holding hands and linking arms together. Some have their eyes closed and bowed heads while others in the background hold up American flags.
Photograph of Martin Luther King Jr. and a group of African Americans holding hands and linking arms together. Some have their eyes closed and bowed heads while others in the background hold up American flags.
Bruce Davidson/Magnum Photos

Protests such as the one shown in the photograph are protected by United States law because the protestors are
  1. over 21 years of age
  2. behaving peacefully
  3. not calling for major changes in the American system
  4. both men and wome